Effects of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids in AthletesAnabolic-androgenic steroids AAS are used as ergogenic durabolin cycle by athletes and non-athletes to enhance performance by augmenting muscular development and strength. AAS administration is often associated effect of anabolic steroids on athletes steroirs adverse effects that are generally dose related. High and multi-doses of AAS used for athletic enhancement can lead to serious and irreversible organ damage. Among the most common adverse effects of AAS are some degree of reduced fertility and gynecomastia in males and masculinization in women and children. Other adverse effects include hypertension and atherosclerosis, blood clotting, jaundice, hepatic neoplasms and carcinoma, tendon damage, psychiatric and behavioral disorders.
Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes: A constant threat - ScienceDirect
Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual adverse effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight.
A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions.
The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour.
AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein HDL -, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels.
In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS. Generally, AAS seem to induce increments of aggression and hostility.
AAS dependence or withdrawal effects such as depression seem to occur only in a small number of AAS users. Many other adverse effects have been associated with AAS misuse, including disturbance of endocrine and immune function, alterations of sebaceous system and skin, changes of haemostatic system and urogenital tract.
One has to keep in mind that the scientific data may underestimate the actual untoward effects because of the relatively low doses administered in those studies, since they do not approximate doses used by illicit steroid users.
The mechanism of action of AAS may differ between compounds because of variations in the steroid molecule and affinity to androgen receptors. Several pathways of action have been recognised. Other mechanisms comprises mediation by the enzyme aromatase that converts AAS in female sex hormones estradiol and estrone , antagonistic action to estrogens and a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors. Furthermore, AAS stimulate erythropoietin synthesis and red cell production as well as bone formation but counteract bone breakdown.
The effects on the cardiovascular system are proposed to be mediated by the occurrence of AAS-induced atherosclerosis due to unfavourable influence on serum lipids and lipoproteins , thrombosis, vasospasm or direct injury to vessel walls, or may be ascribed to a combination of the different mechanisms.
AAS-induced increment of muscle tissue can be attributed to hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibres, in which key roles are played by satellite cell number and ultrastructure, androgen receptors and myonuclei. The authors did not receive any financial support or other benefits from a commercial entity, nor any agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity.
The authors do not have a relationship with any company or manufacturer of any commercial product mentioned in this manuscript or with companies or manufacturers that might benefit from this manuscript. Effects of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids in Athletes. Review Article First Online: This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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