Ibuprofen a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug has chiralityIbuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAID class that is used for treating painfeverand inflammation. Common side effects include heartburn and a rash. Ibuprofen was discovered in by Stewart Adams and initially marketed as Brufen. Non-steoridal is used primarily to treat fever ibuprofenn postimmunisation fevermild to moderate pain including pain relief after anavar and hormone levelspainful menstruationosteoarthritisdental pain, headachesand pain from kidney stones. It is used for inflammatory diseases such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug - Wikipedia
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAID class that is used for treating pain , fever , and inflammation. Common side effects include heartburn and a rash. Ibuprofen was discovered in by Stewart Adams and initially marketed as Brufen. Ibuprofen is used primarily to treat fever including postimmunisation fever , mild to moderate pain including pain relief after surgery , painful menstruation , osteoarthritis , dental pain, headaches , and pain from kidney stones.
It is used for inflammatory diseases such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. In some countries, ibuprofen lysine the lysine salt of ibuprofen, sometimes called "ibuprofen lysinate" is licensed for treatment of the same conditions as ibuprofen; the lysine salt is used because it is more water-soluble.
Infrequent adverse effects include esophageal ulceration, heart failure , high blood levels of potassium , kidney impairment , confusion, and bronchospasm. Ibuprofen may be quantified in blood, plasma, or serum to demonstrate the presence of the drug in a person having experienced an anaphylactic reaction, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients, or assist in a medicolegal death investigation.
A monograph relating ibuprofen plasma concentration, time since ingestion, and risk of developing renal toxicity in overdose patients has been published. Along with several other NSAIDs, chronic ibuprofen use has been found correlated with risk of hypertension  and myocardial infarction heart attack ,  particularly among those treated chronically using high doses.
Along with other NSAIDs, ibuprofen has been associated with the onset of bullous pemphigoid or pemphigoid-like blistering. Drinking alcohol when taking ibuprofen may increase the risk of stomach bleeding. According to the US Food and Drug Administration FDA , "ibuprofen can interfere with the antiplatelet effect of low-dose aspirin, potentially rendering aspirin less effective when used for cardioprotection and stroke prevention.
The recommended elapsed time between a dose of ibuprofen and a dose of aspirin depends on which is taken first. It would be 30 minutes or more for ibuprofen taken after IR aspirin, and eight hours or more for ibuprofen taken before IR aspirin. However, this timing cannot be recommended for enteric-coated aspirin.
But, if ibuprofen is taken only occasionally without the recommended timing, the reduction of the cardioprotection and stroke prevention of a daily aspirin regimen is minimal. Ibuprofen overdose has become common since it was licensed for OTC use. Many overdose experiences are reported in the medical literature , although the frequency of life-threatening complications from ibuprofen overdose is low. Most symptoms are an excess of the pharmacological action of ibuprofen, and include abdominal pain , nausea, vomiting , drowsiness, dizziness, headache, ear ringing , and nystagmus.
Rarely, more severe symptoms, such as gastrointestinal bleeding , seizures , metabolic acidosis , high blood levels of potassium , low blood pressure , slow heart rate , fast heart rate , atrial fibrillation , coma , liver dysfunction, acute kidney failure , cyanosis , respiratory depression , and cardiac arrest have been reported.
Generally, the symptoms observed with an overdose of ibuprofen are similar to the symptoms caused by overdoses of other NSAIDs.
Correlation between severity of symptoms and measured ibuprofen plasma levels is weak. Therapy is largely symptomatic.
In cases presenting early, decontamination of the stomach is recommended. This is achieved using activated charcoal ; charcoal adsorbs the drug before it can enter the bloodstream. Gastric lavage is now rarely used, but can be considered if the amount ingested is potentially life-threatening, and it can be performed within 60 minutes of ingestion. Purposeful vomiting is not recommended. Standard measures to maintain normal urine output should be instituted and kidney function monitored.
However, because ibuprofen is highly protein-bound in the blood, the kidneys' excretion of unchanged drug is minimal. Forced alkaline diuresis is, therefore, of limited benefit.
On occasion, close monitoring in an intensive-care unit for several days is necessary. A patient who survives the acute intoxication usually experiences no late consequences. A study of pregnant women suggests that those taking any type or amount of NSAIDs including ibuprofen, diclofenac and naproxen were 2. PGH 2 , in turn, is converted by other enzymes to several other prostaglandins which are mediators of pain, inflammation, and fever and to thromboxane A 2 which stimulates platelet aggregation, leading to the formation of blood clots.
The analgesic , antipyretic , and anti-inflammatory activity of NSAIDs appears to operate mainly through inhibition of COX-2, which decreases the synthesis of prostaglandins involved in mediating inflammation, pain, fever, and swelling. Antipyretic effects may be due to action on the hypothalamus, resulting in an increased peripheral blood flow, vasodilation, and subsequent heat dissipation. Inhibition of COX-1 instead would be responsible for unwanted effects on the gastrointestinal tract.
Ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. The R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer in vivo. The S-enantiomer is believed to be the more pharmacologically active enantiomer. Virtually all of these have no pharmacological effects. Ibuprofen is practically insoluble in water, but very soluble in most organic solvents like ethanol The original synthesis of ibuprofen by the Boots Group started with the compound 2-methylpropylbenzene.
The synthesis took six steps. A modern, greener technique for the synthesis involves only three steps. It is an optically active compound with both S and R -isomers, of which the S dextrorotatory isomer is the more biologically active; this isomer has also been isolated and used medically see dexibuprofen for details. Ibuprofen is produced industrially as a racemate. The compound, like other 2-arylpropionate derivatives including ketoprofen , flurbiprofen , naproxen , etc.
So two enantiomers of ibuprofen occur, with the potential for different biological effects and metabolism for each enantiomer.
An isomerase alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase converts R -ibuprofen to the active S - enantiomer. Ibuprofen was derived from propionic acid by the research arm of Boots Group during the s. Adams was subsequently awarded an OBE in Boots was awarded the Queen's Award for Technical Achievement for the development of the drug in Ibuprofen was made available under prescription in the United Kingdom in , and in the United States in Advil is manufactured by Pfizer and has been on the market since Ibuprofen is sometimes used for the treatment of acne because of its anti-inflammatory properties, and has been sold in Japan in topical form for adult acne.
Ibuprofen has been associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease , and may delay or prevent it. Use of ibuprofen to lower the risk of Parkinson's disease in the general population would not be problem-free, given the possibility of adverse effects on the urinary and digestive systems. Some dietary supplements might be dangerous to take along with ibuprofen and other NSAIDs, but as of more research needs to be conducted to be certain.
These supplements include those that can prevent platelet aggregation , including ginkgo , garlic , ginger , bilberry , dong quai , feverfew , ginseng , turmeric , meadowsweet , and willow [ citation needed ] ; those that contain coumarin , including chamomile , horse chestnut , fenugreek and red clover ; and those that increase the risk of bleeding, like tamarind.
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