Inaugurăm noua autogară FANY Baia Mare!CFR as an entity has been operating sinceeven though the first trenuri galati cluj napoca on current Romanian territory was opened in The line, which had a length of After several improvements in cluk following months, the line was opened to passenger traffic from 1 November Between andseveral railways were constructed in napcoa area of the Kingdom of Romania. Commissioned by the King of Romania, the line was opened to traffic on 26 August
CFR as an entity has been operating since , even though the first railway on current Romanian territory was opened in The line, which had a length of After several improvements in the following months, the line was opened to passenger traffic from 1 November Between and , several railways were constructed in the area of the Kingdom of Romania.
Commissioned by the King of Romania, the line was opened to traffic on 26 August The price for the construction was at that time , gold francs per kilometre and was contracted to the German Strousberg consortium.
In May , the Romanian state concluded an agreement with another German consortium, known as the "Offenheim Consortium", for the construction of several shorter railways in the region of Moldavia. Due to the poor management of the lines by the Offenheim Consortium, they were placed under the management of CFR in January Meanwhile, during the Romanian War of Independence in , Romania annexed the region of Dobrogea , which had previously belonged to the Ottoman Empire.
The Bucharest-Giurgiu line, the first line constructed in the Kingdom of Romania, was also placed under the administration of CFR during this time. As a result, all railway lines in these regions, previously under the ownership of Austria-Hungary or the Russian Empire , were placed under the administration of CFR.
This event was significant for Romanian railways because it meant that the large Arad rolling stock and steel factory, previously located on Austro-Hungarian territory, was now part of Romania, and was consequently used to produce a wide range of rolling stock and locomotives for CFR. During this time, various railways were "doubled"— that is, double tracks were introduced on routes to permit a greater flow of traffic.
In the period between the wars, various other lines were doubled, including:. During the s and s CFR also bought several new locomotives and cars, embarking on a plan of widespread modernisation. Diesel traction was introduced, and the Malaxa high-speed DMUs a modernised version of which are still in use as commuter trains in Banat were built.
After Romania became a Communist republic in , there was quite a significant amount of investment in railway infrastructure, often to the detriment of other forms of infrastructure. Aside from an increase in train traffic and the construction of various new lines, especially in rural areas, the bulk of electrification and line doubling occurred during the Communist period. Various lines were also supplemented with double tracks to permit a wider flow of traffic, including:.
By the mids, steam traction disappeared completely out of mainstream use, being replaced by standardised diesel and electric locomotives and cars, most of which were built in Romania, at the Astra factory in Arad. After the Romanian Revolution of , which resulted in the fall of Communism, Romania was left with one of the largest, most dense and most frequently used railway networks in Europe; but at the same time having relatively outdated infrastructure.
This, combined with the economic decline that Romania faced in the s due to its transition to a market economy, resulted in CFR entering a period of relative decline. Several little-used routes, especially in rural areas, were cut back, and rolling stock, most of which was acquired in the s, entered a period of disrepair. CFR's image, both domestically and abroad, suffered greatly, due to reports of dilapidated trains, poor service and general disarray of management. After this, the situation of Romanian railways improved significantly, mainly spurred on by Romania's economic boom after the year , which permitted a considerable amount of government investment in railways and has led CFR to once again become one of the most successful railway operators in the region.
Since , a number of small branch lines have been closed— especially those designated for industrial purposes or having a narrow gauge. This has been generally done due to greater competition from private bus services as well as generally low passenger numbers on those lines. The narrow gauge line from Turda to Abrud, for example, could not hope to compete with the private car or bus, the journey time being just short of six and a half hours for the 93 kilometre trip CFR Timetable , table As of the Turda - Abrud journey by bus takes 2 hours and 15 minutes.
Overall however, actual railway closures in Romania have been much less drastic than in other former Communist block countries such as Hungary and Eastern Germany ; indeed the "closure" figures given include lines which have been taken over by private operators and continue to operate Some, such as the Vasser Valley Scenic Railroad , have since become significant tourist attractions. In the year some 47, people were employed by CFR. By July this had reduced to 25, see report below in part due to the divesting of certain operations to other private companies.
Other economies continue and are envisaged and are set out in the report Strategia de restructurare a domeniului feroviar August published by the Romanian ministry of transport August In the early s, CFR embarked on a comprehensive modernization programme in order to improve its image, which was, both internationally and domestically, plagued by reports of poor service and outdated rolling stock.
The first phases of the modernization included a refurbishment of a large number of Rapid and InterCity rolling stock, as well as a general expansion of IC services to form a Romania-wide express network. The Desiro trainsets were used as the icons of CFR's modernisation, despite criticism that CFR shouldn't have used the Desiro trainsets, which are diesel multiple units , on mainline express services, as they are designed mainly for short-distance commuter rail, as seen by their fairly hard seating, low speed, and poor noise insulation.
CFR responded to this by introducing, in late , a number of new Desiro trainsets that had better sound insulation and 70 seats, instead of seats, thereby increasing the width and pitch of the seats. Aside from the Desiro, CFR has also bought in the past few years 80 new sleeping cars WLABmee type , couchettes, InterCity cars, as well as double-decker cars to use on Accelerat and Rapid trains of a high volume of passengers. The new CFR sleepers are some of the most modern in Europe, having air-conditioning, LCD screens and modern showers in each compartment.
Apart from improvements in rolling stock, CFR has also bought or modernised several locomotive classes, including the widespread Class 40 and Class 41 electric locomotives. A hour hotline operates where customers of Connex can call a certain three-digit number and get real-time information on train routes, timetables, station platform departures, delays, prices and ticketing information and booking of trains from Bucharest North station.
Orange Romania has signed a similar agreement in early Smoking is banned on all CFR trains as of 1 September CFR services continue to improve, with the company reaching a turning point in its business strategy and services being some of the best in the region. However, some people have raised concerns that CFR, which has not reached profitability yet, does not have the means to finance ongoing infrastructural modernization, especially in the context of a government that is, at present, keener to develop road infrastructure at the expense of railways.
Completion date is estimated to be mid Although passenger railway services are not a state monopoly in Romania, CFR remains the only passenger carrier operating at a national level. These are known as non-interoperable tracks linii neinteroperabile in Romanian. The main operators are: On these lines, CFR is not allowed to operate its trains—companies which have leased the tracks have a virtual monopoly on their usage.
September saw the publication of the government report: In addition the report has costed major improvements to the long-distance network considerably to reduce journey times. Also, CFR operates international trains on Romanian territory with its own locomotives. The train types vary in terms of speed and type of rolling stock.
In , approximately 55 million passenger journeys were made with the company. In the same time 12 million further journeys were made using the private operators. They are used for two main purposes, as shuttle, or commuter, trains, linking towns with neighbouring villages, and linking neighbouring cities with each other.
Personal trains now Regio , have the lowest average speed Regio trains operate mostly on local routes and stop at every station. Train fares for this type are the cheapest, since no supplement is paid, only the base fee, based on distance. Seats are not reservable. The rolling stock on Regio trains differs widely. Most Regio rolling stock consist of uncompartmented single and double-decker cars. Some train services of this type, especially on rural routes, only have 2nd class rolling stock i.
As of , most Regio trains have only 2nd class cars. The livery of most Regio cars is painted in blue, with the rolling stock built in the s and s. Some very short rural routes in Romania's Bukovina region use rolling stock from the s and s, refitted with bus seats and operating like railbuses. CFR is refurbishing a range of double-decker Personal cars, that will be used on Personal and Accelerat trains.
The refurbished cars, painted in exactly the same livery as the old ones, have been introduced since , and are cleaner, although they still use most of the old fittings.
Some routes like Sibiu —Craiova are operated by Desiro trainsets whereas others are operated by modernized electric trainsets. InterRegional trains IR , formerly Accelerat and Rapid trains until December , are used for medium and long-distance services that stop only in towns or cities. InterRegional trains have higher speeds. They are also more expensive, requiring the payment of a supplement alongside the base fee. Some services of the InterRegional type require a reservation.
Despite the long distances, InterRegional trains tend to stop in every town even though they bypass villages and hence are very popular, though they are seldom used for express travel between two large cities.
The InterRegio rolling stock is formed of both single-decker cars, either of the old Y type, painted in blue, plain or with a white horizontal stripe or of the new "red" series and of new double-decker cars.
Single-decker cars are all corridor-type, with the old cars having 8 seats per compartment in second class and 6 in first class whereas the new cars have 6 seats per compartment regardless of class. Double-decker cars have 4 seats per row in an open plan. Accelerat trains also have a reputation for being overcrowded and dirty due to the long distances which they travel and the relatively frequent stops they make.
In early , it introduced a new double-decker car for medium-distance, highly used InterRegional former accelerat routes such as Bucharest— Predeal. Longer-distance InterRegional trains often have couchettes, and sleepers started to be added again to consists after a lengthy absence. Dining cars are never used on these trains.
Various classes of cars have been refurbished, and fitted with air-conditioning, ecological toilets, etc. However, a small and rapidly declining number of Rapid rolling stock, mainly on lesser-used routes, remains fairly aged and outdated.
Most Rapid rolling stock is painted in red, usually with a white horizontal stripe. All cars are compartmented and first class is usually air-conditioned, with 6 seats per compartment both in second class and first class. Sleepers, couchettes and dining-cars are available on most long routes. In the case of travelling such a long distance as mentioned above, it is recommended to book a sleeperette you can choose between 4—6 passengers in a compartment.
The 6 passenger-compartment is the cheapest option for a higher comfort. Fares and timetables can be checked on www. InterCity IC is CFR's premier train type and is used for daytime express services between major cities, as well as shuttle services between Bucharest and the Black Sea coast and the Carpathian mountain resorts of Sinaia and Predeal. InterCity trains typically only stop in large cities generally of over , inhabitants.
Due to this, InterCity prices include a significant supplement alongside the base fee. However, due to the fact that IC services are only slightly more expensive than Rapid services, InterCity trains have become very popular for both travellers and businesspeople.
There are two main types of InterCity rolling stock: The standard InterCity rolling stock is either new or refurbished all IC rolling stock was built after , with air-conditioning, power-plugs in both 1st and 2nd class carriages and plush bucket armchairs, as well as complimentary newspapers, free meals and airplane-like service in first class. These trains generally have a reputation for their high levels of comfort, cleanliness and service. The InterCity standard livery is usually grey and red, especially in the case of the Cclass rolling stock, which is the newest type.