Encoding/decoding strings in Python 3.x vs Python 2.xX decode our other article, Encoding x decode Decoding Strings in Python 2. Here we will look at encoding and decoding strings in Python 3. Many things in Python 2. Decoed Python string is not one of those things, and in fact it is probably what changed most drastically. Encoding and decoding strings in Python 2.
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In our other article, Encoding and Decoding Strings in Python 2. Here we will look at encoding and decoding strings in Python 3. Many things in Python 2. The Python string is not one of those things, and in fact it is probably what changed most drastically.
Encoding and decoding strings in Python 2. Thankfully, turning 8-bit strings into unicode strings and vice-versa, and all the methods in between the two is forgotten in Python 3. Let's examine what this means by going straight to some examples. In contrast to the same string s in Python 2. The visible difference is that s wasn't changed after we instantiated it. As we can see, it doesn't matter whether it's a string containing all Latin characters or otherwise, because strings in Python 3.
If you have dealt with encoding and Decoding Strings in Python 2. However, if we don't need to use the unicode , encode , or decode methods or include multiple backslash escapes into our string variables to use them immediately, then what need do we have to encode or decode our Python 3. Before answering that question, we'll first look at b' The thing about bytes objects is that they actually are arrays of integers , though we see them as ASCII characters.
How or why they are arrays of integers is not of great importance to us at this point, but what is important is that we will only see them as a string of ASCII literal characters and they can only contain ASCII literal characters. Now to see how bytes objects relate to strings, let's first look at how to turn a string into a bytes object and vice versa.
If we want to turn our nonlat string from before into a bytes object, we can use the bytes constructor method; however, if we only use the string as the sole argument we'll get this error:.
As we can see, we need to include an encoding with the string. Let's use a common one, the UTF-8 encoding:. Now we have our bytes object, encoded in UTF Does this mean if we use an encode method call on nonlat , that we'll get the same result?
Indeed we got the same result, but we did not have to give the encoding in this case because the encode method in Python 3. If we changed it to UTF, we'd have a different result:. Though both calls perform the same function, they do it in slightly different ways depending on the encoding or codec.
Since we can encode strings to make bytes, we can also decode bytes to make strings—but when decoding a bytes object, we must know the correct codec to use to get the correct result. In this case we were alerted by Python because of the failed decoding operation, but the caveat is that errors will not always occur when the codec is incorrect! If we think of this in the context of human languages, using different codecs to encode and decode the same information would be like trying to translate a word or words from Spanish into English with an Italian-English dictionary—some of the phonemes in Italian and Spanish might be similar, but you'll still be left with the wrong translation!
As a final note on strings in Python 3. In order to do this the strings must be encoded. This is no big deal in Python 2. Also when reading from a file with non-ASCII data, it's important to use the rb mode and decode the data with the correct codec — unless of course you don't mind having an "Italian" translation for your "Spanish.
Encoding and Decoding Strings in Python 3. Tuesday 19 th March Thursday 12 th December Traceback most recent call last: We can use the method directly on the bytes. He fuels his interest in programming by picking up a new computing language whenever he can so far having picked up Bash, VBS, and others , but the first spark and the nitro in his tank will always be Python. Related Articles Python Basics: Encode and Decode Strings in Python 2. Signup for new content Subscribe. A Tutorial and Implementation Guide.