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Niesteroidowe leki przeciwzapalne (NLPZ translation English | Polish dictionary | Reverso
Najbardziej znanym lekiem z tej grupy jest kwas acetylosalicylowy np. The word vascular, meaning relating to the vessels, is derived from the Latin vas. A few structures do not contain blood vessels and are labeled, tunica media, circularly arranged elastic fiber, connective tissue, polysaccharide substances, the second and third layer are separated by another thick elastic band called external elastic lamina.
The tunica media may be rich in smooth muscle, which controls the caliber of the vessel. Veins dont have the external elastic lamina, but only an internal one, tunica adventitia, entirely made of connective tissue. It also contains nerves that supply the vessel as well as nutrient capillaries in the blood vessels.
Capillaries consist of more than a layer of endothelium and occasional connective tissue. When blood vessels connect to form a region of diffuse vascular supply it is called an anastomosis, anastomoses provide critical alternative routes for blood to flow in case of blockages. There is a layer of muscle surrounding the arteries and the veins which help contract and this creates enough pressure for blood to be pumped around the body.
Blood vessels are part of the system, together with the heart. They are roughly grouped as arterial and venous, determined by whether the blood in it is flowing away from or toward the heart. The term arterial blood is used to indicate blood high in oxygen. This is because they are carrying the blood to and from the lungs, respectively, blood vessels do not actively engage in the transport of blood, but arteries—and veins to a degree—can regulate their inner diameter by contraction of the muscular layer.
This changes the flow to downstream organs, and is determined by the autonomic nervous system. Vasodilation and vasoconstriction are also used antagonistically as methods of thermoregulation, oxygen is the most critical nutrient carried by the blood. In all arteries apart from the artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated with oxygen. The blood pressure in blood vessels is traditionally expressed in millimetres of mercury, in the arterial system, this is usually around mmHg systolic and 80 mmHg diastolic.
Cyklooksygenaza — Cyclooxygenase, officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, is an enzyme that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin.
Pharmaceutical inhibition of COX can provide relief from the symptoms of inflammation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, exert their effects through inhibition of COX. In genetics, PTGS is officially used for family of genes and proteins. The names prostaglandin synthase, prostaglandin synthetase, and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthetase are older terms still used to refer to COX. The most significant difference between the isoenzymes, which allows for selective inhibition, is the substitution of isoleucine at position in COX-1 with valine in COX-2, the smaller Val residue in COX-2 allows access to a hydrophobic side-pocket in the enzyme.
Drug molecules, such as DuP and the derived from it. The resulting inhibition of prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis has the effect of reduced inflammation, the most frequent adverse effect of NSAIDs is irritation of the gastric mucosa as prostaglandins normally have a protective role in the gastrointestinal tract.
Selectivity for COX-2 is the feature of celecoxib, etoricoxib. Because COX-2 is usually specific to inflamed tissue, there is much less gastric irritation associated with COX-2 inhibitors, rofecoxib was withdrawn in because of such concerns.
A variety of flavonoids have been found to inhibit COX-2, fish oils provide alternative fatty acids to arachidonic acid. These acids can be turned into some anti-inflammatory prostacyclins by COX instead of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, hyperforin has been shown to inhibit COX-1 around times as much as aspirin. Calcitriol significantly inhibits the expression of the COX-2 gene, caution should be exercised in combining low dose aspirin with COX-2 inhibitors due to potential increased damage to the gastric mucosa.
COX-2 is upregulated when COX-1 is suppressed with aspirin, which is thought to be important in enhancing mucosal defense mechanisms, COX-2 inhibitors have been found to increase the risk of atherothrombosis even with short-term use.
One of several oxides of nitrogen, it is a gas under standard conditions. Nitric oxide is a free radical—i. It is an important intermediate in the chemical industry. It is also produced naturally by the high air temperatures produced along the path of lightning in thunderstorms. In mammals including humans, nitric oxide is an important cellular signaling molecule involved in physiological and pathological processes.
It is a powerful vasodilator with a short half-life of a few seconds in the blood, long-known pharmaceuticals such as nitroglycerine and amyl nitrite were found to be precursors to nitric oxide more than a century after their first use in medicine. Low levels of nitric oxide production are important in protecting organs such as the liver from ischemic damage, Nitric oxide production is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and is essential for hepatic lipid metabolism under starvation.
As a consequence of its importance in neuroscience, physiology, and immunology, research into its function led to the Nobel Prize for discovering the role of nitric oxide as a cardiovascular signalling molecule. It is classified as a hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section of the U. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and is subject to reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store.
In water, nitric oxide reacts with oxygen and water to form HNO2 or nitrous acid, nitrosyl iodide can form but is an extremely short-lived species and tends to reform I2. Nitric oxide dimer N2O2 is formed when nitric oxide is cooled, Nitric oxide can also react directly with sodium methoxide, forming sodium formate and nitrous oxide.
So-called NONOate compounds are used for nitric oxide generation. Nitric oxide reacts with all metals to give complexes called metal nitrosyls. The most common bonding mode of nitric oxide is the linear type. His father, Maurice Vane, was the son of Jewish Russian immigrants and his mother, Frances Vane and he attended a local state school from age 5, before moving on to King Edwards School in Edgbaston, Birmingham.
An early interest in chemistry was to prove the inspiration for studying the subject at the University of Birmingham in , during his undergraduate studies, Vane became disenchanted with chemistry but still enjoyed experimentation. Vane held a post at the University of London for 18 years, under the leadership of Salvador Moncada, this group continued important research that eventually led to the discovery of prostacyclin.
He was awarded the Lasker Award in for the discovery of prostacyclin and was knighted in for his contributions to science, John Vane married in to Elizabeth Daphne Page and had 2 daughters. Z Wikipedii, wolnej encyklopedii.
Niesteroidowe leki przeciwzapalne Reumatologia Farmakologia. The blood pressure in blood vessels is traditionally expressed in millimetres of mercury, in the arterial system, this is usually around mmHg systolic and 80 mmHg diastolic 2. COX-2 is upregulated when COX-1 is suppressed with aspirin, which is thought to be important in enhancing mucosal defense mechanisms, COX-2 inhibitors have been found to increase the risk of atherothrombosis even with short-term use 3.
The most common bonding mode of nitric oxide is the linear type 4. John Vane and Salvador Moncada in the s. Blood vessel with an erythrocyte red blood cell, E within its lumen, endothelial cells forming its tunica intima inner layer , and pericytes forming its tunica adventitia outer layer. Simple diagram of the human circulatory system. Nimesulide is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAID with pain medication and fever reducing properties.
Blood coagulation pathways in vivo showing the central role played by thrombin. The interaction of vWF and GP1b alpha. The GP1b receptor on the surface of platelets allows the platelet to bind to vWF, which is exposed upon damage to vasulature. The GP1b-IX receptor complex. This protein receptor complex is found on the surface of platelets, and in conjunction with GPV allows for platelets to adhere to the site of injury.
Mutations in the genes associated with the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex are characteristic of Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Rivaroxaban drug bound to the coagulation factor Xa. The drug prevents this protein from activating the coagulation pathway by inhibiting its enzymatic activity. Reference ranges for blood tests , comparing blood content of bicarbonate shown in blue at right with other constituents.
Lower arm of a year-old female showing skin damage caused by topical corticosteroid use. Steroidogenesis , including corticosteroid biosynthesis.
Cortisol hydrocortisone , a corticosteroid with both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activity and effects. Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids. Enzymes and substrates associated with thromoboxane and prostacyclin synthesis. Ball-and-stick model of prostacyclin.