In this review, we focus on hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), since it is a source of fibers , oil and molecules and as such it is an emblematic example. Front Plant Sci. Feb 4; doi: /fpls eCollection . Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules. Andre CM(1). Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of.
Thousand One of The and Plant Molecules Cannabis the sativa:
Fibre-type Cannabis also known as hemp or industrial hemp is at the moment underemployed for pharmacological purposes, while drug-type C.
However, there has also been a growing interest in fibre-type C. Many European countries have recognized the commercial value of hemp and a legal limit of 0. Cannabinoids are meroterpenoids specifically C 21 or C 22 terpenophenolic compounds , obtained from the alkylation of an alkyl resorcinol with a monoterpene unit [ 3 ]. They are mainly synthesized in glandular trichomes, which are more abundant in female inflorescences [ 2 ]. More than cannabinoids have been isolated, characterised, and divided into 11 chemical classes [ 4 , 6 ].
It should be pointed out that cannabinoids are biosynthesized in the acid form in plant tissues; then, they can generate their decarboxylated counterparts under the action of heat and light, by means of a spontaneous decarboxylation [ 1 , 3 , 4 , 7 — 10 ]. CB 2 receptors are also considered to be involved in neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, and bone remodelling [ 3 ].
In the ambit of nonpsychoactive compounds, CBD represents the most valuable one from the pharmaceutical point of view, since it has been found to possess a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, together with antibiotic, neuroprotective, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties [ 1 , 3 , 11 — 14 ].
CBDA has antimicrobial and antinausea properties [ 1 , 11 , 13 ], while CBG has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic activities [ 1 , 11 , 13 , 15 ]. Thanks to its lack of psychoactivity, CBD is one of the most interesting compounds, with many reported pharmacological effects in various models of pathologies, from inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, to epilepsy, autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis, arthritis, schizophrenia, and cancer [ 16 ].
CBD has also been found to be a negative allosteric modulator of the CB 1 receptors and an inverse agonist of CB 2 receptors, the second activity partly explaining its anti-inflammatory activity [ 16 ]. Concerning other phenolics present in C. Cannabis flavonoids exert several biological effects, including properties possessed also by cannabinoids and terpenes [ 2 ].
Anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer activities have been described for these compounds [ 2 ]. In particular, cannflavin A and B are known to possess an anti-inflammatory action [ 2 ]. An antimicrobial and antileishmanial activity has also been demonstrated for cannflavin B [ 17 ]. Cannflavin A has shown a good antileishmanial activity and a moderate antioxidant action [ 17 ].
In the ambit of Cannabis phenolics, canniprene, which is a dyhydrostilbene unique to C. If compared with cannflavin A, which is the most potent cannflavin, canniprene has been found to be superior at inhibiting 5-LO, but it is less effective for mPGES-1 inhibition [ 19 ]. As regards the other compounds present in C.
Both mono- and sesquiterpenes have been detected in roots and aerial parts of Cannabis and they are mainly produced in secretory glandular hairs [ 2 ]. Several interactions between Cannabis secondary metabolites have been described in the literature [ 2 ].
Many studies have expanded the concept that inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression [ 20 ]. Indeed, several cancers originate from infection, chronic irritation, and inflammation [ 20 ]. Tumour microenvironment, which is largely regulated by inflammatory cells, displays a key role in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival, and migration [ 20 ].
In addition, cancer cells have co-opted some of the signalling molecules of the innate immune system for invasion, migration, and metastasis [ 20 ]. By focusing the attention on hemp nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, CBD has been demonstrated to be useful in the treatment of different inflammatory ailments, including bowel diseases e. As regards cancer, CBD has exhibited antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities, thus demonstrating modulating the tumorigenesis in different types of cancer, including breast, lung, colon, brain, and others [ 21 ].
In this context, this review is focused on the effects and the molecular mechanisms of CBD and related compounds on inflammation and cancer processes, highlighting also the role of other related nonpsychoactive cannabinoids and noncannabinoids constituents of fibre-type hemp.
Endocannabinoids and their metabolic enzymes and receptors have been identified in monocytes, macrophages, basophils, lymphocytes, and dendritic cells.
In these cells their role is to modulate immune function in an autocrine and paracrine way [ 22 ]. CB 2 expression in human B cells increases after the activation by anti-CD40 antibody. However, differentiation of B cells is accompanied by decreased expression of CB 2. CB 2 levels in macrophages undergo changes correlated with cell activation or with inflammation.
Indeed, macrophages express higher levels of CB 2 ; so, the functions of macrophages in these states of activation may be the most sensitive to the actions of cannabinoids. These data suggest a physiological role of the endocannabinoid system in the functions of immune cells with respect to inflammation [ 24 ]. Moreover, a relationship between the endocannabinoid system and toll-like receptors TLR has been reported, with TLR activation enhancing the production of endocannabinoids and cannabinoids suppressing TLR-induced inflammatory response [ 25 ].
The study of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids from C. CBDA has been found to possess a dual inhibitory effect on COX, through downregulation [ 40 ] and enzyme inhibition [ 35 ]. More recently, CBD has been found to significantly reduce cytokines production in an in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis, using HaCaT cells [ 43 ]. Concerning the effect of other C.
As far as peripheral inflammation is concerned, C. Recent investigations have highlighted the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the physiology of the gastrointestinal function and its possible deregulation in gastrointestinal pathology [ 49 ].
The precise mechanisms across tissue departments that are under the regulatory control of the endocannabinoid system have not been fully understood [ 49 ].
Cannabinoids have been found to modulate intestinal permeability in an in vitro model. These data suggest that endocannabinoids may play a role in the modulation of gut permeability and that Cannabis -based medicines may possess therapeutic benefit in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases characterized by abnormal intestinal permeability, such as inflammatory bowel disease IBD and shock [ 50 ]. These findings have been further confirmed in another in vitro model of intestinal inflammation.
The effects of cytokines on increased permeability were inhibited by a CB 1 receptor antagonist and a 2-AG synthesis inhibitor and were enhanced by inhibitors of the degradation of AEA or 2-AG, suggesting that local production of endocannabinoids activating CB 1 may play a role in the modulation of gut permeability during inflammation [ 51 ]. CBD anti-inflammatory effects on the acutely inflamed human colon have also been investigated in combination with palmitoylethanolamide PEA in cultured cell lines and this effect was compared with experimentally inflamed explant human colonic tissue [ 52 ].
In particular, Caco-2 cells and human colonic explants collected from elective bowel cancer, inflammatory bowel disease IBD , or acute appendicitis resections were used. These effects extend into chronic inflammatory processes, such as IBD, but also acute inflammatory conditions, such as appendicitis.
Since these two compounds are well tolerated in humans with few side effects, their clinical use in treating IDB can be very useful [ 52 ].
In another study, CBD has been demonstrated to improve Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced damage in Caco-2 cells, by inhibiting the apoptotic process and restoring the intestinal barrier integrity, through the involvement of CB 1 receptors [ 53 ]. Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis.
Clostridium difficile toxin A significantly affects enterocytes permeability leading to apoptosis and colonic mucosal damage. Given the absence of any significant toxic effect in humans, CBD may ideally represent an effective adjuvant treatment for Clostridium difficile -associated colitis [ 53 ].
In addition to the protective role of Cannabis components on the inflamed intestine, an additional positive aspect is their potential role in preventing imbalances of gut microbiota.
This aspect not only is relevant for the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders, such as IBD and obesity, but also has implications for the treatment of colorectal cancer CRC. The impact of the endocannabinoid system on gut microbiota is a relatively new and emerging field wherein the interplay between cannabinoids and metabolic syndrome has been the focus so far. Bacteroidetes ratio typically found in obesity, resulting in weight-loss, indicating that Cannabis may play a role in CRC prevention as well [ 54 ].
Further studies are needed to determine whether CBD has the same effect on gut microbiota with respect to the balance of Firmicutes: Bacteroidetes to evaluate its application in halting the progression of the obese microbiota profile present in CRC, with the hopes of delaying this disease onset [ 54 ]. CB 1 receptors are much more expressed in the brain if compared to CB 2 [ 55 ]. However, CB 2 can be upregulated under neuroinflammatory conditions and as a result of the invasion of peripheral cells expressing CB 2 [ 56 ].
The neuroprotective effect of endocannabinoids involves the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines production. Cytokines may regulate the normal activity of the endocannabinoid system in different ways: Indeed, these cytokines have pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, depending on a variety of factors. This activity leads to a promotion of stem cells proliferation and migration that might have important implications for brain self-repairing processes [ 60 ].
The cannabinoid system and cytokine network are directly related. Evidences suggest that controlled neuroinflammation is crucial for tissue repair within the brain [ 62 , 63 ]. The inhibition of ATP-induced intracellular calcium increase, together with the inhibition of NO production, has been suggested as a mechanism by which CBD can reduce microglia activation [ 75 ]. In another work, CBD has also inhibited the neurotoxic effects of protease-resistant prion protein PrPres and it has affected PrPres-induced microglial cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner; so, it may protect neurons against the multiple molecular and cellular factors involved in the different steps of the neurodegenerative process, which takes place during prion infection [ 77 ].
More recently, the neuroprotection of fibre-type hemp extracts and CBD was assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and microglial BV-2 cell lines in the presence of rotenone as the toxic agent, also in serum-free conditions [ 78 ].
The decarboxylated hemp extract has shown a mild neuroprotective activity on BV-2 cells treated with rotenone, higher than that of pure CBD [ 78 ]. As regards serum-free experiments, the nondecarboxylated hemp extract was the most effective neuroprotective agent toward SH-SY5Y cells, while BV-2 cells were better protected from the toxic insult by the decarboxylated extract and CBD [ 78 ].
Concerning other cannabinoids, the anti-inflammatory properties of CBG have been described in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation, using NSC motor neurons conditioned with the medium of LPS-stimulated murine macrophages. CBG treatment in macrophages has prevented neuronal cytotoxicity by reducing inflammation, i. As regards other C.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and it accounts for about 8. Cancer is a multistep disease characterized by a formation of a preneoplastic lesion initiation processes which, by time, progresses into malignant tumor. Generally, cell transformation is a combination of intrinsic genetic factors and external exposure to physical, chemical, and biological carcinogens. However, it must be underlined that ageing and life style are others fundamental factors for the development of the disease.
Indeed, the incidence of cancer rises dramatically with age, probably due to the decreased efficacy of cellular repair mechanisms, while tobacco, alcohol, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are the major global cancer risks. As described above, inflammation per se is not dangerous, since it protects the body by increasing host defense and it is self-limiting.
However, persistent and deregulated inflammation is associated with an increased risk of malignant diseases [ 85 ]. Cells and mediators of the innate immune system have been detected in many cancers, even when inflammation is not implicated in tumor development [ 85 , 86 ].
Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants.
In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating.
Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young.
Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both.
Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application in combination most significantly increased the growth 19 cm root and 47 cm shoot on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants , and ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively.
All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves.
Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction. In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L.
As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP assay for the rapid identification of C.
The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum -sensitized patients.
Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C.
A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: Sensitivity to Cannabis , tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects and 1 negative had positive skin tests to C.
Specific IgE to C. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa.
Tomato, peach and A. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid THCA in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid CBDA in hemp.
Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified.
Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency.
The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. All the plants belonging to the F 1 's were analyzed by gas chromatography for cannabinoid composition and constantly found to have a mixed CBD-THC chemotype. Ten individual F 1 plants were self-fertilized, and 10 inbred F 2 offspring were collected and analyzed. A model involving one locus, B, with two alleles, B D and B T , is proposed, with the two alleles being codominant.
It is suggested that such codominance is due to the codification by the two alleles for different isoforms of the same synthase, having different specificity for the conversion of the common precursor cannabigerol into CBD or THC, respectively. The F 2 segregating groups were used in a bulk segregant analysis of the pooled DNAs for screening RAPD primers; three chemotype-associated markers are described, one of which has been transformed in a sequence-characterized amplified region SCAR marker and shows tight linkage to the chemotype and codominance.
Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol THC content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds.
DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis.
Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties. In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast cp genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa.
Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. To verify the position of C. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales. Chemotaxonomic features associated with flavonoids of cannabinoid-free cannabis Cannabis sativa subsp. The major flavonoids present in the leaves and flowers of the cannabinoid-free cannabis Cannabis sativa subsp.
The different composition of flavonoids has chemotaxonomic value. Biologically active cannabinoids from high-potency Cannabis sativa. Nine new cannabinoids were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. The known sterol beta-sitosterolO-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-6'-acetate was isolated for the first time from cannabis.
Compounds 6 and 7 displayed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively, while 5 displayed strong antileishmanial activity. Nutraceutical potential of hemp Cannabis sativa L. In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH in vitro assays , CAA-RBC cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells and hemolysis test ex vivo assays evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds.
Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion our results show that C.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. Cannabis Cannabis sativa or C. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research.
An example from Humboldt Identification of Cannabis sativa L. This study reports a successful application of fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH technique in the identification of Cannabis sativa L. Specificity of probe-target hybridization was tested against the target and 4 non-target plant species, i.
Probe-target hybridization was also confirmed against 20 individual Cannabis plant samples. It was also showed that 1-kb THCA synthase FISH probe can be applied to identify small amount of dried powdered Cannabis material with an addition of rehydration step prior to the experimental process. This study provided an alternative identification method for Cannabis trace. Published by Elsevier B. Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa.
Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays.
DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C. Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C.
This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. Larval susceptibility of Aloe barbadensis and Cannabis sativa against Culex quinquefasciatus, the filariasis vector.
Larvicidal potential of petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride and methanol extracts of Aloe barbadensis and Cannabis sativa has been investigated against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts examined, Carbon tetrachloride extract Cte of Aloe barbadensis was the most effective with LC50 values of Cte of both the plants exhibits potential larvicidal activity and can be used as ecofriendly alternative in the management of the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.
Metals and organic compounds in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids: Illicit production and trade of Cannabis sativa affect many societies. This drug is the most popular and easy to produce. Important information for the authorities is the production locality and the indicators of a particular production. This work is an attempt to recognise correlations between the metal content in the different parts of C.
In this study, numerous correlations between metal content in plants and soil, already confirmed in previous publications, were analysed applying chemometric unsupervised methods, that is, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, in order to highlight their role in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids.
Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects. Cannabidiol CBD , another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C.
The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol 4. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.
The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cannabis Sativa on appetite hormone in rat. Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide which is secreted from stomach. Cannabis sativa is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine.
Little evidence is published about its effect on energy intake and its mechanism. In the current study, the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of C. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were selected, the first group received 0. Total ghrelin levels in plasma were measured for 3 h post-gavage. There was no significant difference in energy intake between control and vehicle groups. This study showed that C. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant in human.
Cannabis Cannabis sativa L. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C. The method involves trimethyl silyl derivatization of the extracts. The limit of detection range was 0. The developed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and suitable for the detection and quantitation of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in different extracts of cannabis varieties.
The method was applied to the analysis of these cannabinoids in different parts of the micropropagated cannabis plants buds, leaves, roots, and stems.
Prevalence of sensitization to Cannabis sativa. Lipid-transfer and thaumatin-like proteins are relevant allergens. Although allergy to Cannabis sativa was first reported over 40 years ago, the allergenicity has scarcely been studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of sensitization to this plant , to analyze the clinical characteristics and allergenic profile of sensitized individuals and to identify the allergens involved.
Five hundred and forty-five individuals in Spain attending allergy clinics with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms underwent a skin-prick test SPT with C. Of this preselected population, 44 individuals had positive SPT to C. Prevalence was higher in individuals who were C. Two individuals reported mild symptoms with C. Twenty-one individuals from 32 available sera Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight range of between 10 and 60 kDa.
Six of them recognized a kDa band, identified as a lipid transfer protein LTP and 8 recognized a kDa band, identified as a thaumatin-like protein. There is a high prevalence of sensitization to C. The clinical symptoms directly attributed to C. The sensitization profile observed suggests that C. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY chromosome sex determination system. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair XX in female and XY in male plants.
The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CScarrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's Cannabis sativa L.
Arsenic As , cadmium Cd , lead Pb and titanium Ti presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima DV.
Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content.
Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia. Metabolic analysis of elicited cell suspension cultures of Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with jasmonic acid JA and pectin as elicitors to evaluate their effect on metabolism from two cell lines using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Tyrosol, an antioxidant metabolite, was detected in cannabis cell cultures.
The tyrosol content increased after eliciting with JA. Cannabinoid ester constituents from high-potency Cannabis sativa. Eleven new cannabinoid esters, together with three known cannabinoid acids and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Delta9-THC , were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. The structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses to be beta-fenchyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate 1 , epi-bornyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate 2 , alpha-terpenyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate 3 , 4-terpenyl Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinolate 4 , alpha-cadinyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate 5 , gamma-eudesmyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate 6 , gamma-eudesmyl cannabigerolate 7 , 4-terpenyl cannabinolate 8 , bornyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate 9 , alpha-fenchyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate 10 , alpha-cadinyl cannabigerolate 11 , Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Delta9-THC , Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A Delta9-THCA , cannabinolic acid A CBNA , and cannabigerolic acid CBGA.
The isolated acids and the ester-containing fractions showed low affinity to the CB-1 receptor. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L. Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. Diversity analysis in Cannabis sativa based on large-scale development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers.
However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat SSR markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat EST-SSR markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis Cannabis sativa L.
From there, a total of 3, complementary primer pairs were designed as SSR markers. Among these markers, trinucleotide repeat motifs Among these markers, Forty-five polymorphic primer pairs were selected to evaluate genetic diversity and relatedness among the cannabis genotypes.
The results showed that varieties could be divided into 4 groups primarily based on geography: Moreover, the coefficient of similarity when comparing cannabis from Northern China with the European group cannabis was higher than that when comparing with cannabis from the other two groups, owing to a similar climate. This study outlines the first large-scale development of SSR markers for cannabis.
These data may serve as a foundation for the development of genetic linkage, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted breeding of cannabis. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice. Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum.
Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice.
Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group. This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days after starting cannabis injection.
Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. Glucose in brain decreased by The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant.
To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Careful consideration of the extraction method is very important for the measurement of cannabinoids in hemp seeds.
Yang, Yi; Lewis, Melissa M. Temperature response of photosynthesis in different drug and fiber varieties of Cannabis sativa L.
The temperature response on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of three medicinal drug type HP Mexican, MX and W1 and four industrial fiber type Felinq 34, Kompolty, Zolo 11 and Zolo 15 varieties of Cannabis sativa , originally from different agro-climatic zones worldwide, were studied. Varieties having higher maximum photosynthesis PN max had higher chlorophyll content as compared to those having lower PN max. Differences in water use efficiency WUE were also observed within and among the drug and fiber type plants.
However, differences became less pronounced at higher temperatures. Both stomatal and mesophyll components seem to be responsible for the temperature dependence of photosynthesis PN in this species, however, their magnitude varied with the variety.
However, a greater increase was associated with the variety having higher rate of photosynthesis, indicating a strong association between photosynthetic and respiratory rates. The results provide a valuable indication regarding variations in temperature dependence of PN in different varieties of Cannabis sativa L.
Effect of induced polyploidy on some biochemical parameters in Cannabis sativa L. This study is aimed at testing the efficiency of colchicine on inducing polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L. Shoot tips were treated with three different concentrations of colchicine 0, 0.
The biggest proportion of the almost coplanar tetraploids The ploidy levels were screened with flow cytometry. The biochemical analyses showed that reducing sugars, soluble sugars, total protein, and total flavonoids increased significantly in mixoploid plants compared with tetraploid and diploid plants.
Tetraploid plants had a higher amount of total proteins, total flavonoids, and starch in comparison with control plants. The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabinol in mixoploid plants only, but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids.
Also, we found such changes in protein concentration in electrophoresis analysis. In overall, our study suggests that tetraploidization could not be useful to produce tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use, and in this case, mixoploids are more suitable.
Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method.
The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count.
The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa. Background Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases.
The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil NSO on cannabis -induced moto-cognitive defects. The Morris water maze MWM paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies.
Results Cannabis -like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis -induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes.
Conclusions The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis. Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases.
Cannabis -like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis. The validated method is simple, sensitive, and reproducible and is therefore suitable for the detection and quantification of these cannabinoids in extracts of cannabis roots.
To our knowledge, this is the first report for the quantification of cannabinoids in cannabis roots. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth, physiology and cannabinoid production of Cannabis sativa L. The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C.
Drug and fiber-type C. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis. Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. The increased level of.. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil CBD. Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days.
Cannabidiol CBD gradually decreased when irradiated but.. Marijuana Cannabis sativa L. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats STRs could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples. The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C. A sequenced allelic ladder consisting of 56 alleles was designed to accurately genotype C.
Customs and Border Protection crime lab. Using an optimal range of DNA 0. This multi-locus system is relatively sensitive 0. The 13 STR panel was found to be species specific for C. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness and applicability of this 13 loci STR system for forensic DNA profiling of marijuana samples.
Early phenylpropanoid biosynthetic steps in Cannabis sativa: CoA ligase 4CL catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase CHS catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabis sativa tissues were evaluated.
Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves mainly flavonoids and roots mainly lignin was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data.
Early Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Steps in Cannabis sativa: Link between Genes and Metabolites. Gene expression profiling via quantitative real-time PCR is a robust technique widely used in the life sciences to compare gene expression patterns in, e. In the field of plant science, real-time PCR is the gold standard to study the dynamics of gene expression and is used to validate the results generated with high throughput techniques, e.
An accurate relative quantification of gene expression relies on the identification of appropriate reference genes, that need to be determined for each experimental set-up used and plant tissue studied. Here, we identify suitable reference genes for expression profiling in stems of textile hemp Cannabis sativa L. We additionally validate the reference genes by analysing the expression of putative candidates involved in the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway and in the first step of the shikimate pathway.
The goal is to describe the possible regulation pattern of some genes involved in the provision of the precursors needed for lignin biosynthesis in the different hemp stem tissues. The results here shown are useful to design future studies focused on gene expression analyses in hemp.
Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. Marihuana in response to enviromental pollution. Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.
Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis -based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients.
Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. In the treatment group, melanoma B was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls.
The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis -based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year.
Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines.
Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations. Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.
Evaluation of a loci STR multiplex system for Cannabis sativa genetic identification. Marijuana Cannabis sativa is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA.
The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats STRs could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases.
A real-time PCR quantification method for C. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million.
The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus hops which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases. The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes.
Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol. Aldose reductase ALR2 is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors ARIs is currently very important.
The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants , containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications.
Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs.
The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. Developmental validation of a Cannabis sativa STR multiplex system for forensic analysis. Amplification of the loci in four multiplex reactions was tested across DNA from dried root, stem, and leaf sources, and DNA from fresh, frozen, and dried leaf tissue with a template DNA range of Overall, amplification was best using Cross species amplification was observed in Humulus lupulus for three loci but there was no allelic overlap.
This is the first study following SWGDAM validation guidelines to validate short tandem repeat markers for forensic use in plants. Identification of IgE- binding pollen protein from Cannabis sativa in pollen-hypersensitive patients from north Pakistan.
However, allergies in relation to Cannabis sativa C. Although categorized as an aeroallergen, there are limited number of reports regarding allergenic potential in C. Therefore, the current study is aimed at exploring the IgE- binding potential among the C. Initial screening of C. Eight bands were visible on gel however only one protein fragment i.
Strong IgE affinity of a 14 kDa protein fragment from C. Further study is required to find the exact nature of this protein fragment. Cannabis agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. An example from Humboldt County California, a principal cannabis -producing region, involved digitizing grow sites in 60 watersheds with Google Earth imagery. Grows were clustered, suggesting disproportionate impacts in ecologically important locales.
Twenty-two percent were on steep slopes, suggesting risk of erosion, sedimentation, and landslides. Five percent were plants would consume an estimated m3 of water, suggesting risk of stream impacts. The extent and magnitude of cannabis agriculture documented in our study demands that it be regulated and researched on par with conventional agriculture. Non-cannabinoid constituents from a high potency Cannabis sativa variety.
Six new non-cannabinoid constituents were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. Some isolates displayed weak to strong antimicrobial, antileishmanial, antimalarial and anti-oxidant activities.
Compounds 2—4 were inactive as analgesics. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Cannabidiol CBD , a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis , has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties.
However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline.
The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature , does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions.
Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.
Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L.
Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period 8 weeks by laser microdissection LMD and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland head and the stem of the latter. Cannabichromene [CBC 8 ] along with cannabinol CBN 9 were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants.
The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit.
Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve. Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics. In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts.
Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants ; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question. Cannabis sativa smoke inhalation decreases bone filling around titanium implants: Although the harmful effect of tobacco smoking on titanium implants has been documented, no studies have investigated the effects of cannabis sativa marijuana smoking.
Thus, this study investigated whether marijuana smoke influences bone healing around titanium implants. Thirty Wistar rats were used.
After anesthesia, the tibiae surface was exposed and 1 screw-shaped titanium implant was placed bilaterally. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetra-hidro-cannabinoid.
After 60 days, the animals were killed. The degree of bone-to-implant contact and the bone area within the limits of the threads of the implant were measured in the cortical zone A and cancellous bone zone B. Tetra-hidro-cannabinoid in urine was positive only for the rats of MSI group.
Cold acclimation induces distinctive changes in the chromatin state and transcript levels of COR genes in Cannabis sativa varieties with contrasting cold acclimation capacities. Little is known about the capacity of Cannabis sativa to cold-acclimate and develop freezing tolerance. This study investigates the cold acclimation CA capacity of nine C.
The varieties were divided into three groups based on their contrasting CA capacities by comparing the survival of non-acclimated and cold-acclimated plants in whole- plant freeze tests.
In response to the CA treatment, all varieties accumulated soluble sugars but only the varieties with superior capacity for CA could maintain higher levels throughout the treatment.
In addition, the varieties that acclimated most efficiently accumulated higher transcript levels of cold-regulated COR genes and genes involved in de novo DNA methylation while displaying locus- and variety-specific changes in the levels of H3K9ac, H3K27me3 and methylcytosine MeC during CA. Furthermore, these hardy C. This study uncovers the molecular mechanisms underlying CA in C.
Structural basis for olivetolic acid formation by a polyketide cyclase from Cannabis sativa. In polyketide biosynthesis, ring formation is one of the key diversification steps. Olivetolic acid cyclase OAC from Cannabis sativa , involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis, is the only known plant polyketide cyclase. The crystal structures revealed that the enzyme indeed belongs to the DABB superfamily, as previously proposed, and possesses a unique active-site cavity containing the pentyl-binding hydrophobic pocket and the polyketide binding site, which have never been observed among the functionally and structurally characterized bacterial polyketide cyclases.
The structural and functional insights obtained in this work thus provide the foundation for analyses of the plant polyketide cyclases that will be discovered in the future.
Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp Cannabis sativa L. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation.
The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected.
The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants. The Cannabis sativa Versus Cannabis indica Debate: Ethan Russo, MD, is a board-certified neurologist, psychopharmacology researcher, and Medical Director of PHYTECS, a biotechnology company researching and developing innovative approaches targeting the human endocannabinoid system.
He is the author of numerous books, book chapters, and articles on Cannabis , ethnobotany, and herbal medicine. Plants and the Endocannabinoid System. Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis , whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system.
While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: With laws changing around the world regarding the legal status of Cannabis sativa cannabis it is important to develop objective classification systems that help explain the chemical variation found among various cultivars.
Currently cannabis cultivars are named using obscure and inconsistent nomenclature. Terpenoids, responsible for the aroma of cannabis , are a useful group of compounds for distinguishing cannabis cultivars with similar cannabinoid content.
In this study we analyzed terpenoid content of cannabis samples obtained from a single medical cannabis dispensary in California over the course of a year. Terpenoids were quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and peak identification was confirmed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Initially cultivars were divided into five major groups, which were subdivided into 13 classes based on differences in terpenoid profile.
Different classification models were compared with PLS-DA and found to perform best when many representative samples of a particular class were included.
A hierarchy of terpenoid chemotypes was observed in the data set. Some cultivars fit into distinct chemotypes, whereas others seemed to represent a continuum of chemotypes. This study has demonstrated an approach to classifying cannabis cultivars based on terpenoid profile. Sequencing of over clones from the library resulted in the identification of over unigenes.
Candidate genes for almost every step in the biochemical pathways leading from primary metabolites to THCA were identified. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested that many of the pathway genes are preferentially expressed in the glands.
Hexanoyl-CoA, one of the metabolites required for THCA synthesis, could be made via either de novo fatty acids synthesis or via the breakdown of existing lipids.
Many of the ESTs encode transcription factors and two putative MYB genes were identified that were preferentially expressed in glands. Three candidates for the polyketide synthase PKS gene responsible for the first committed step in the pathway to THCA were characterized in more detail. One of the PKS candidates was highly and specifically expressed in glands relative to whole leaves and, on the basis of these expression data, it is proposed to be the most likely PKS responsible for olivetolic acid synthesis in Cannabis glands.
Comparative in silico analyses of Cannabis sativa , Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera compounds elucidating the medicinal properties against rheumatoid arthritis. From last decade, there has been progressive improvement in computational drug designing. Several diseases are being cured from different plant extracts and products. Rheumatoid Arthritis RA is the most shared disease among auto-inflammatory diseases.
Extensive literature review showed that plant species under study Cannabis sativa , Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera possess anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-rheumatic properties.
By using ligand based pharmacophore generation approach and virtual screening against natural products libraries we retrieved twenty unique molecules that displayed utmost binding affinity, least binding energies and effective drug properties. The docking analyses revealed that Ala, Glu, Ser, Gln, Tyr, Leu, Asp, Phe and Ala were critical interacting residues for receptor-ligand interactions. This report is opening new dimensions for designing innovative therapeutic targets to cure RA.
Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: Anxiety and depression are pathologies that affect human beings in many aspects of life, including social life, productivity and health.
Cannabidiol CBD is a constituent non-psychotomimetic of Cannabis sativa with great psychiatric potential, including uses as an antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like compound. The aim of this study is to review studies of animal models using CBD as an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like compound.
Studies involving animal models, performing a variety of experiments on the above-mentioned disorders, such as the forced swimming test FST , elevated plus maze EPM and Vogel conflict test VCT , suggest that CBD exhibited an anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects in animal models discussed.
Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules.
Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules .. Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana; Cannabaceae), one of the oldest medicinal plants in the. Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture.