There are 3 primary methods for calculation of medication dosages; Dimensional Analysis, Ratio Proportion, and Formula or Desired Over Have Method. Desired Over Have or Formula Method uses a formula or equation to solve for an unknown quantity (x) much like ratio proportion. The lack of basic maths skills can be a major problem when it comes to nurses administering drugs to patients. Calculations are still a significant source of drug error. Online learning units on fundamental aspects of nursing care. Most drugs in children are dosed according to body weight (mg/kg) or body surface area (BSA) (mg/m2). Calculate the dose of amoxicillin suspension in mLs for otitis media for a 1-yr-old child weighing 22 lb. The dose required is 40 mg/kg/day divided BID and the suspension comes in.
Dose Calculating a
It is difficult to get the exact amount needed. It is always better to infuse more units than fewer units. You should use all of the factor in the bottle. A person with hemophilia A will not be harmed if he receives a little more factor VIII than is called for; it just costs more.
If, after 24 to 36 hours, you are still bleeding, you may need to take factor again. If you still have symptoms of the bleed after taking factor a second time, call your doctor. Divide that weight by 2. If the bottles of factor on hand have units each, he should receive four bottles. If, after 36 to 48 hours, you are still bleeding, you may need to take factor again.
Factor IX Please enter in your weight and desired factor level: A study evaluated the role confidence plays in overall arithmetic in drug calculation skills. Study participants attended remedial math classes from a wide range of educational backgrounds and age dynamics seeking a first degree in nursing, a foundation degree, or post-registration courses Shelton, The study revealed one-third of students feel a lack of confidence which originated in an earlier stage of education dating back to a primary school environment Shelton, Medication errors can be detrimental and costly to patients Chen, Hsiao, Shen and Wu, Drug calculation and basic mathematical skills play a role in the safe administration of medications.
High-risk medications such as heparin and insulin often require a second check on dosage amounts by more than one provider before administration of the drug. Follow institutional policies and recommendations on the double-checking of dose calculations by another licensed provider. Published in , one study by a group of oncology nurses in 3 Swiss hospitals discusses the process of double-checking and its limitations in the current healthcare environment, as well as increased nurse workload and time constraints, distracting environments, and lack of resources.
The study concluded that oncology nurses strongly believed in the effectiveness of double checking medication despite reporting limitations of the procedure in clinical practice Schwappach, Taxis and Pfeiffer, To access free multiple choice questions on this topic, click here. This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.
Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. StatPearls Publishing; Jan-. Show details Treasure Island FL: StatPearls Publishing ; Jan-. Author Information Authors Tammy J. Affiliations 1 Arkansas State University - Jonesboro. Technique There are 3 primary methods for the calculation of medication dosages as referenced above. Desired Over Have or Formula Method Desired over Have or Formula Method is a formula or equation to solve for an unknown quantity x much like ratio proportion.
A basic formula, solving for x, guides us in the setting up of an equation:. The stock strength is the amount of drug present in the preparation while the stock volume is the amount of the solution where the drug is diluted. The total IV volume is the amount of fluid to be infused while the time is the number of running hours or minutes. The total IV volume is the amount of IV fluid to be infused while time is the duration of how long the IV fluid should be infused in terms of minutes.
The common drop factors used in different hospitals are 10, 15 and Calculating for the remaining time of infusion for a certain IV fluid is possible with the following formula:. The volume remaining is the amount of IV fluid remaining for the infusion while the drops per minute is the regulation of the IV infusion. The drop factor can be determined in the macrodrip used in the hospital.
Here are some of the most popular videos about drug calculations. It is easy to understand and practice the formulas presented above using these audio-visual learning tools:.
Table of Contents for Dosage Calculations Tutorial
Learn dosage calculations with this free tutorial complete with explanations, examples, and practice questions. The Weight Based Dose Calculator is used for weight based dosing. The parameters for the calculator include dosage, weight, med amount, per volume. Even with the programmable I.V. pumps used in many clinical settings, it's advisable for the nurse to verify the correct dosage by calculation once during the shift;.