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This study was conducted to determine the level of metacognitive thinking of teachers in the process of teaching and learning in the classroom. Metacognitive thinking teachers include the use of metacognitive knowledge which consists of different types of knowledge: The ability of the teachers to plan, monitor and evaluate the teaching process can also be determined.
This study was conducted on graduate teachers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The stratified sampling method was selected for the purpose of this study. In conclusion, this study shows that the planning and procedural knowledge is an important element in improving the quality of teachers teaching in the classroom. Thus, the researcher recommended that further studies should focus on training programs for teachers on metacognitive skills and also on developing creative thinking among teachers.
Sujata Gupta Kedar , Fasiha Fayaz. This paper presents various studies being carried out by various researchers globally on the attitude of lecturers towards the advent of information technology and e-learning. An effort has been made in this paper to study the various trends being presented by researchers and draw some general conclusions. Also the favorable attitude of teachers' towards using new technology in teaching will certainly make teachers use them in appropriate situations in teaching and thus measuring of teachers attitude towards using new technology in teaching is very much needed.
It was seen that male and female had no significant difference in hardware and software use, whereas both had favorable attitude.
There is no significant difference between the gender and age, because higher the age lower the score is. Kanda Runapongsa Saikaew , Chaluemwut Noyunsan. Nowadays social media information, such as news, links, images, or VDOs, is shared extensively. However, the effectiveness of disseminating information through social media lacks in quality: Many researchers have investigated about credibility on Twitter, but there is no the research report about credibility information on Facebook.
This paper proposes features for measuring credibility on Facebook information. We developed the system for credibility on Facebook. Secondly, we developed a chrome extension of FB credibility for Facebook users to evaluate the credibility of each post.
The article summarizes the experience of laboratory technical subjects teaching methodologies using a number of software products. The main aim is to modernize the teaching process in accordance with the requirements of today - based on information technology. Increasing of the study attractiveness and effectiveness is due to the introduction of CA technologies in the learning process.
This paper discussed the areas where individual CA system used. Environment using CA systems are briefly presented in each chapter. A 'flipped classroom' uses technology to shift the traditional lecture outside the scheduled class time and uses the face-to-face time to engage students in interactive activities. Aim of the Study: Assess the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of using the 'flipped classroom' teaching format with MPharm students in two pharmacy schools in the UK: An experimental mixed methods design was employed, with final year MPharm students in two phases; 1 a qualitative study using focus groups, 2 a quasi-experiment measuring knowledge acquisition and satisfaction by delivering a session on rheumatoid arthritis, in two teaching formats: The flipped classroom approach was preferred over the traditional lecture for delivering a pharmacy practice topic, and it was comparable or better than the traditional lecture with respect to knowledge acquisition.
However, high workload and difficult or new concepts could be barriers to pre-class preparation, and therefore successful flipped classroom. The flipped classroom encouraged learning scaffolding where students could benefit from application of knowledge, and interaction with peers and the lecturer, which might, in turn, facilitate learning consolidation and deep understanding. This research indicated that the flipped classroom was beneficial for all learning styles.
Implementing the flipped classroom at both pharmacy institutions was successful and well received by final year MPharm students. Given the attention now being put on the Teaching Excellence Framework TEF , understanding effective methods of teaching to enhance student achievement and satisfaction is now more valuable than ever.
Iman Ali Ahmed Al-Rashed. This paper directs attention to the limitations of the teacher-centered strategy in teaching. The aim of this study is to draw more educational attention to learner-centered strategy in order to shift the emphasis from the traditional concept of teaching to a new concept in teaching.
To begin bridging the traditional concept of teaching and the new concept, the study will explore the new concept of teaching to support teaching in Arab World generally and in Iraq specifically. A qualitative case study orientation was used to collect data in the form of classroom observations, interviews and field notes.
The teaching practices used by three university instructors are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made. Although there are some variations in the definitions of WM, recent findings in WM have contributed vastly to our understanding of language learning, especially its effects on second language acquisition SLA.
This paper discusses two general, yet highly relevant WM findings that could directly affect the effectiveness of Chinese Language CL vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as the quality of its assessment. First, PWM is found to be critical for the long-term learning of phonological forms of new words.
These two ideas are hardly discussed in the Chinese literature, both conceptual and empirical. Given the unique phonological, orthographical and morphological properties of the CL, this discussion will shed some light on the vocabulary acquisition of this Sino-Tibetan language family member.
Together, these two WM concepts could have crucial implications for the design, development, and planning of vocabularies and ultimately reading comprehension teaching and assessment in language education.
Hopefully, this will raise an awareness and trigger a dialogue about the meaning of these findings for future language teaching, learning, and assessment. Chinese Language , working memory , vocabulary assessment , vocabulary teaching.
Task-based language teaching TBLT and focus on form instruction FFI methods were proven to improve quality and quantity of immediate language production. However, studies that compare between the effectiveness of the language production when using TBLT versus FFI are very little with results that are not consistent. Moreover, teaching Arabic using TBLT is a new field with few research that has investigated its application inside classrooms.
Furthermore, to the best knowledge of the researcher, there are no prior studies that compared teaching Arabic as a foreign language in a classroom setting using computer-assisted task-based language teaching CATBLT with computer-assisted form focused language instruction CAFFI.
The participants of the study are 20 students enrolled in two intermediate-level Arabic as a foreign language classes. The experiment will take place over the course of 7 days.
Based on a study conducted by Abdurrahman Arslanyilmaz for teaching Turkish as a second language, an in-house computer assisted tool for the TBLT and another one for FFI will be designed for the experiment.
The data that will be analyzed are the dialogues produced by students in both the experimental and control groups when completing a task or communicating in conversational activities. Thus, the study aims to demonstrate whether or not there is an instruction method that positively affects the language produced by students learning Arabic as a foreign language more than the other.
A Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Despite significant progress in access, equity and public examination success, poor student performance in mathematics in secondary schools has become a major concern in Bangladesh. A substantial body of research has emphasised the important contribution of teaching practices to student achievement. However, this has not been investigated in Bangladesh.
Therefore, the study sought to find out the effectiveness of mathematics teaching practices as a means of improving secondary school mathematics in Dhaka Municipality City DMC area, Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was twofold, first, to identify the 20 highest performing secondary schools in mathematics in DMC, and second, to investigate the teaching practices of mathematics teachers in these schools.
A two-phase mixed method approach was adopted. In the first phase, secondary source data were obtained from the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education BISE , Dhaka and value-added measures used to identify the 20 highest performing secondary schools in mathematics.
In the second phase, a concurrent mixed method design, where qualitative methods were embedded within a dominant quantitative approach was utilised. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select fifteen teachers from the 20 highest performing secondary schools. The main sources of data were classroom teaching observations, and teacher interviews. The data from teacher observations were analysed with descriptive and nonparametric statistics. The interview data were analysed qualitatively.
The main findings showed teachers adopt a direct teaching approach which incorporates orientation, structuring, modelling, practice, questioning and teacher-student interaction that creates an individualistic learning environment. The variation in developmental levels of teaching skill indicate that teachers do not necessarily use the qualitative i. This is the first study to investigate teaching behaviours of effective secondary mathematics teachers within Dhaka, Bangladesh.
It contributes in an international dimension to the field of educational effectiveness and raise questions about existing constructivist approaches. Further, it contributes to important insights about teaching behaviours that can be used to inform the development of evidence-based policy and practice on quality teaching in Bangladesh. Tryfon Mavropalias , Anastasia Alevriadou. Co-teaching is a relatively recent model of providing teaching services to students with disabilities in Greece.
According to recent studies, it seems that the largest number of students who take part in the Greek co-teaching programme are children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders ASD. The aim of the suggested study is to investigate the effectiveness and usefulness of co-teaching to students with ASD as well as skills students with ASD develop during co-teaching in primary education classes.
To conduct the research, quantitative method of research was used, with the means of research being a questionnaire including open and close type questions. The sample of this research consists of primary school co-teachers from all over Northern Greece 71 general education teachers and 71 special education teachers. Given the results, it was concluded that co-teachers believe that including and educating children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the general class benefits those who autism is measured from the middle to the upper end of the spectrum.
Additionally, children develop social skills first, followed by emotional and cognitive skills. Ultimately, educators declared that they are prepared only to a limited degree to effectively support students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in general classes. Autistic spectrum disorders , co-teaching , co-teachers , co-taught class. The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of teaching kindness in preschool children by using several techniques.
Kindness is a physical act or emotional support aimed to build or maintain relationships with others. Kindness is known to be essential in the development of moral reasoning to distinguish between the good and bad things.
In this study, kindness is operationalized as several acts including helping friends, comforting sad friends, inviting friends to play, protecting others, sharing, saying hello, saying thank you, encouraging others, and apologizing. It is mentioned that kindness is crucial to be developed in preschool children because this is the time the children begin to interact with their social environment through play.
Furthermore, preschool children's cognitive development makes them begin to represent the world with words, which then allows them to interact with others. On the other hand, preschool children egocentric thinking makes them still need to learn to consider another person's perspective. In relation to social interaction, preschool children need to be stimulated and assisted by adult to be able to pay attention to other and act with kindness toward them.
On teaching kindness to children, the quality of interaction between children and their significant others is the key factor. It is known that preschool children learn about kindness by imitating adults on their two way interaction.
Specifically, this study examines two types of teaching techniques that can be done by parents as a way to teach kindness, namely the picture-storybook reading and hand-puppet storytelling. These techniques were examined because both activities are easy to do and both also provide a model of behavior for the child based on the character in the story.
To specifically examine those techniques effectiveness in teaching kindness, two studies were conducted. Study I involves 31 children aged years old with picture-storybook reading technique, where the intervention is done by reading 8 picture books for 8 days. In study II, hand-puppet storytelling technique is examined to 32 children aged years old. The treatments effectiveness are measured using an instrument in the form of nine colored cards that describe the behavior of kindness.
Two weeks after interventions, an improvement on all kindness behaviors measured is intact. This study explores the genesis and development of concept mapping as a useful tool for science education and its effectiveness as technique for teaching and learning and evaluation for secondary science in schools and the role played by National College of Education science teachers.
Concept maps, when carefully employed and executed serves as an integral part of teaching method and measure of effectiveness of teaching and tool for evaluation. Research has shown that science concept maps can have positive influence on student learning and motivation. The success of concept maps played in an instruction class depends on the type of theme selected, the development of learning outcomes, and the flexibility of instruction in providing library unit that is equipped with multimedia equipment where learners can interact.
The study was restricted to 6 male and 9 female respondents' teachers in third-year internship pre service science teachers in Gampaha district Sri Lanka. Data were collected through 15 item questionnaire provided to learners and in depth interviews and class observations of 18 science classes. The two generated hypotheses for the study were rejected, while the results revealed that significant difference exists between factors influencing teachers' choice of concept maps, its usefulness and problems hindering the effectiveness of concept maps for teaching and learning process of secondary science in schools.
It was examined that concept maps can be used as an effective measure to evaluate students understanding of concepts and misconceptions. Even the teacher trainees could not identify, key concept is on top, and subordinate concepts fall below. It is recommended that pre service science teacher trainees should be provided a thorough training using it as an evaluation instrument. This paper aims at synthesizing the difficulties in cognitive processes faced by translation majors in mainland China.
The purpose is to develop possible solutions and innovation in terms of translation pedagogy, curriculum reform, and syllabus design. This research will take our translation majors as the starting point, who will be one of the focus groups. At present, our Applied Translation Studies Programme is offering translation courses in the following areas: It is a four-year translation programme, and our students would start their introductory courses since Semester 1 of Year 1.
The medium of instruction of our College is solely in English. This being so, the research questions include: We have collected questionnaires for now. The main learning difficulties include: This being so, we propose to reform and revitalize translation curriculum and syllabi to address to these difficulties. The aim is to maximize teaching effectiveness in translation by addressing the above-mentioned questions with a special focus on cognitive difficulties faced by translation majors.
Today's rapid development of industrial pulsation, how to reduce the gap between the academics and industry need become an important issue in vocational education. One of the innovated highlights of this program is to invite industry practitioners to participate in collaborative teaching for classes and 28 industry practitioners to be as mentors too.
Students' overall satisfaction with the program was more than 4. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness and discusses the limit of the practitioners program. This study has revealed and provided some valuable perspectives how to best ensure the ongoing involvement of industry practitioners in vocational education. The findings of this study are valuable to those involved in designing collaborative teaching curriculum and delivering a course for vocational education.
The purpose of this research was to study the effects of co-teaching upon study achievement by teaching unite of teaching strategy course to a sample of students at education college at King Faisal University.
The sample of this study, which consisted of students, was divided into two equal groups. The study had lasted for 4 weeks. Related achievement test had been prepared, consisted of 23 questions, from multi choice question type, which had been divided on the chosen unite syllabus. The validity and reliability had been tested. The study conducted at the second semester of HT tests had been used to analysis the data.
Based on the study findings the researcher recommended applying co-teaching in teaching the course of teaching strategies and other courses also to conduct similar studies.
In this project a web-based classroom response system CRS was used in the teaching an intermediate level economics course. This system allows the instructor to post a question on the screen and students to answer questions using their own electronic mobile devices. The questions and the results summarizing student responses can be shown to students simultaneously and the instructor can make timely feedback to students in class.
There is a vast literature on the advantages and challenges of using CRS. However, empirical evidence on the student attributes that increase the effectiveness of CRS in improving student learning outcomes is sparse. The purpose of this project is to 1 find out if the use of CRS is beneficial to students taking economics, and 2 discover key student attributes that will likely make CRS more effective.
Comparing the examination scores of the CRS treatment group and control group, the treatment group performed considerably better and statistically significant differences were found basing on paired t-tests on the differences. We also observed that students who prefer to use instant messaging rather than making conversations are generally more positive towards CRS. This is the case because of the hegemony of the western world in global academia. For this reason, peculiarities and considerations of context are often swept to the margins as educational thinkers emphasize patently Eurocentric and one-size-fits-all solutions to the problems of effective teaching.
This paper takes as a starting point the notion that pedagogy must be context specific and pragmatic in its application. It is from this perspective that it focuses on the challenges of teaching philosophy to students in the Nigerian tertiary institutions. Philosophy students in Nigeria usually come across philosophy for the first time at the tertiary level.
This raises the problem of inadequate exposure. This paper addresses the problems highlighted above and hosts of other issues as well as provides recommendations that can improve effectiveness of teaching philosophy at the university level.
The cultivation of integrity in PBS among the teachers is geared towards encouraging them to become committed and dedicated in implementing assessments in a serious, efficient manner, thus moving away from the usual teacher-focused approach to the student-focused approach. The teachers show their integrity via their professional commitment, responsibility and actions.
The instrument for integrity cultivation in PBS has been developed and validated for measuring the effectiveness of the module constructed. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt was used to collect data from the population.
The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession.
Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included. This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup.
The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. It is believed that drama can be used in language classes to create a positive atmosphere for students to use the target language in an interactive way.
Thus, drama has been extensively used in many settings in language classes. Although happening has been generally used as a performance art of theatre, this new kind of performance has not been widely known in language teaching area. Therefore, it can be an innovative idea to use happening in language classes, and thus a positive environment can be created for students to use the language in an interactive way.
Happening can be defined as an art performance that puts emphasis on interaction in an audience. Because of its interactive feature, happening can also be used in language classes to motivate students to use the language in an interactive environment. The present study aims to explain how a happening performance can be applied to a learning environment to teach vocabulary in English.
In line with this purpose, a learning environment was designed for a vocabulary presentation lesson. At the end of the performance, students were asked to compare the traditional way of teaching and happening performance in terms of effectiveness. It was found that happening performance provided the students with a more creative and interactive environment to use the language.
Therefore, happening can be used in language classrooms as an innovative tool for education. English , happening , language learning , vocabulary teaching. Moroccan education is currently facing many difficulties and problems due to traditional methods of teaching. In this paper, the major aim is to explore the effect of certain Neuro -Linguistic Programming techniques in one educational institution in Morocco.
Quantitative and Qualitative methods are used. The findings prove the effectiveness of this new approach regarding Moroccan education, and it is a promising tool to improve the quality of learning. This research paper, sets out to draw some traditional english language teaching practices and to suggest ways for their improvement under the light of humanistic and socio-cultural psychology.
This is going to aid language teachers by applying principled psychological methods on the field of education in order to introduce a reciprocal mode of teaching where teacher and learner begin with a mutual effort.
However the teacher, after initiating most of the work, gradually passes on more and more responsibility to the learners resulting in their independent endeavors. The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of using Graphic calculators GC with Calculator Based Laboratory 2 CBL2 in teaching and learning of form four biology for these topics: Nutrition, Respiration and Dynamic Ecosystem.
Sixty form four science stream students were the participants of this study. The participants were divided equally into the treatment and control groups.
Instruments in this study were a set of pre-test and post-test and a questionnaire. The findings of this study indicated the use of GC with CBL2 in biology had significant positive effect. The highest mean was 4. The second highest mean was 4. However, many of these instruments focused either on general teaching skills, or on the other hand, were very specific to one subject. As such, these instruments do not offer a tool to measure the ability of teachers in teaching 21st century skills such as innovation skills.
Teaching innovation skills helps to prepare students for lives and careers in the 21st century. To reach this goal, the item instrument measures four dimensions of innovation skills: The results concluded that the mean of self-efficacy ranged from 3 to 3. The discrimination analysis revealed that one item recorded a negative correlation with the total, and three items recorded low correlation with the total.
The reliabilities of items ranged from 0. The study concluded the need to discard one item and revise five items to increase the quality of the instrument for future work. Musa Auwal Mamman , S. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effectiveness of GeoGebra software in teaching and learning of linear and quadratic equations amongst senior secondary school students in Fagge Local Government Area, Kano State—Nigeria.
Five research items were raised in objectives, research questions and hypotheses respectively. A random sampling method was used in selecting students from a population of of SS2 students.
The experimental group was taught using the GeoGebra software while the control group was taught using the conventional teaching method. The instrument used for the study was the mathematics performance test MPT which was administered at the beginning and at the end of the study.
The results of the study revealed that students taught with GeoGebra software experimental group performed better than students taught with traditional teaching method. The t- test was used to analyze the data obtained from the study. GeoGebra Software , mathematics performance , random sampling , mathematics teaching. Mehrnoush Tajnia , Simin Sadeghi-Saeb. Students and teachers have different perceptions of effectiveness of instruction.
A sample of learners and 54 instructors from different private language institutes and universities participated in the study. The analysis of the results revealed that: This paper investigated the effect of Teaching Strategies on Academic Achievement in Secondary Physics Education as a quality assurance process for the teaching and learning of the subject.
Teaching strategies investigated were the interactive, independent and dependent strategies. Results showed that teaching strategies have significant effect on students achievement; the joint effect of the teaching strategies was also significant on students achievement in Physics.
The interactive teaching strategies was recommended for teaching the subject and the students should be exposed to practical, computer literacy to stimulate interest and curiosity to enhance quality. This study is a classroom action research.
Students were given pre-test before the treatment and post-test after the treatment. Quantitative data was collected by using speaking test requiring the students to respond to the recorded questions. Qualitative data was collected through observation sheets and field notes. The qualitative data gave a description and additional information about the learning process done by the students.
The research findings indicate that the use of video in teaching and learning is good in increasing learning outcome. English teaching , fun learning , speaking ability , video. The need for grounding of teachers and the trend of using innovative ways to deal with students of various abilities in schools, colleges and universities has always been essential in any part of the world. Teacher edification programs, and qualifications standards, all too repeatedly lack enough rigidity, extensiveness and profundity, resulting in high levels of unskilled teachers and squat student performance.
Accordingly, the solution, from this viewpoint, lies in making the entry and training necessities for teaching deeper and more exact.
The training provided is a direct opportunity for new teachers to interact better and motivate students in a two way discussion class. It also aims to examine the current practices used in the various teacher training programs and if there is any other method that can be associated to enhance the effectiveness of these programs further. This research uses qualitative data collected from interviews, peer discussions, classroom observations, reviews, feedback of students and teachers to study teacher training and teaching methods used in school and universities in Bangladesh.
The study finds teacher training to be effective though it has some limitations. It also includes some suggestions to make teacher training more effective. The use of instructional materials is an indispensable tool that enhances qualitative teaching and learning especially at the primary level.
Instructional materials are used to facilitate comprehension of ideas in the learners as well as ensure long term retention of ideas and topics taught to pupils. This study examined the relevance of using instructional materials in primary schools in Katsina State, Nigeria.
It employed survey design using cluster sampling technique. The questionnaire was used to gather data for analysis, and statistical and frequency tables were used to analyze the data gathered. The results show that teachers and students alike have realized the effectiveness of modern instructional materials in teaching and learning for the attainment of set objectives in the basic primary education policy.
It also discovered that reluctance in the use of instructional materials will hamper the achievement of qualitative primary education. The study therefore suggests that there should be the provision of adequate and up-to-date instructional materials to all primary schools in Katsina State for effective teaching and learning process. Samal Abzhanova , Saule Mussabekova. Today, a new system of education is being created in Kazakhstan in order to develop the system of education and to satisfy the world class standards.
For this purpose, there have been established new requirements and responsibilities to the instructors. Students should not be limited with providing only theoretical knowledge. Also, they should be encouraged to be competitive, to think creatively and critically. Moreover, students should be able to implement these skills into practice. Please Select Andrea Federal Standar.. Cobi - Nano - Abrams Tank 78 Pcs. Kfz Elephant Tracks. Kpfm KV-1 r Tank. Kpfm KV-2 r Tank. Kpfw Mk I e Afrika Korp.
Heller - Catalogue. Humbrol - 50ml No 2 Emerald Gloss Enamel. Stone Textures - Desert Sand ml. Stone Textures - Dark Earth ml. Stone Textures - Brown Earth ml. Vallejo Colour Chart - Pigments. Sfl IVa Dicker Max. Kpfw 38 t Ausf. Trumpeter Track Set 1: Great Wall Hobby 1: I Ausf F VK Treating coir fibers with hot water provided an improvement in the panel's properties. Department of Wood, Cellulose and Paper , research has been carried out for the last 25 years on agave, coconut husk and lechuguilla fibers Fuentes et al.
The ACs must meet certain quality requirements defined by the chipboard industry , mainly related to their physical-mechanical properties; however, these are not the only important ones that should be taken into account to obtain good quality ACs; there is a durability test which, however, few manufacturers carry out.
Durabilidad natural de tableros aglomerados de cocotero Natural durability of coconut palm trunk chipboards. Biodeterioro, Cocos nucifera L.
Abstract The agglomerate chipboard AC industry has traditionally used discarded pine wood, and occasionally sugar cane mash, as raw materials. Research has been conducted in order to incorporate non-traditional raw materials in the manufacture of chipboards, taking care that the physical-mechanical properties of the new boards do not detract from those of traditional boards.
AC resistance to biodeterioration is a phenomenon that has not been researched before. This methodology is commonly used to determine the weight loss and dimensional changes of solid wood blocks 2.
In this work the propagation method of the fungi was changed from soil-block to agar-block malt dextrose agar —MDA— and potato dextrose agar —PDA. A commercial pine wood chipboard PWAC was used. Three brown-rot and three white-rot fungi were used Laetiporus sulphureus, Neolentinus suffrutescens, Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium respectively.
Results show that both CHFACs and CPTACs were resistant to attack by the four fungi studied in terms of weight loss, owing to the particular properties of the tested lingnocellulosic materials.
The hydration test was based on previous studies Rocha Almeida et al. Three hundred grams of Portland cement and 15 g of wood fines were thoroughly mixed with water Wood—wool cement board using mixture of eucalypt and poplar. This study was carried out to explore the possibility of making cement-bonded wood—wool composite building products using eucalypt Eucalyptus camaldulensis and poplar Populus deltoides.
The experimental design consisted of three treatments — ratio of wood—wool mixture, percentage concentration of cement, and calcium chloride CaCl2. The ratios of wood—wool to cement were The addition of the woody material to cement clearly reduced the maximum hydration temperature and increased the time to maximum temperature. Eucalypt was generally less compatible with cement than poplar wood. Test results showed that boards made with poplar wood—wools had superior properties compared to the eucalypt and mixed wood—wools.
The presence of eucalypt in mixture of woody materials typically resulted in decrease in mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of most produced boards were found to satisfy the minimum requirements of ISO standard. The development of 3]. A wide variety of agricultural residues and non-woody written communication has been increasing rapidly, a materials, such as midribs of date palm, wheat straw , day without paper is unthinkable, but now the use of rattan  and coconut shell of babacu  have been paper has been expanded to encompass not only studied.
Fortunately, Saudi Arabia has relatively large communication but also to the packaging and hygiene quantities of lignocellulosic materials, including sectors. Lignocellulosic residues cause many environmental problems, so conversion of these residues to pulp and paper production will reduce these problems in Saudi Arabia.
Residues from Phoenix dactylifera, Triticum aestivum, Conocarpus erectus, in addition to Tamarix aphylla hardwood and Juniperus procera softwood were evaluated using chemical characteristics to investigate the suitability of these residues for pulp and paper industry.
Results revealed that, significant differences among raw materials in chemical composition were obtained. Date palm gave the highest average values of extractive content followed by T. Generally, extractive content was high in lignocellulosic residues compared to woody materials which imply that the quantity cooking and bleaching chemicals will be increased with lignocellulosic residues and consequently this will raise the cost of paper production.
Cellulose content in the lignocellulosic residues under study was in the range between softwood J. Regarding lignin content, T. Lignin in lignocellulosic residues was low compared to woody materials except C. Lignocellulosic composites from brazilian giant bamboo Guadua magna Part 1: Properties of resin bonded particleboards.
As a result, environmental and health concerns have encouraged the development of asbestos-free cementitious products. The use of fibers from wood species has become a viable alternative to asbestos fibers.
Recycled pulp of old corrugated containers OCCs was studied as a possible fiber source for wood-fiber cement WFC sheets. This industry currently largely relies on kraft pulp, an expensive fiber source. Thus, WFC sheets were made using less costly OCC fibers utilizing various types of treatments including fiber fractionation FF and refining to and Canadian Standard Freeness CSF to determine the effect of these treatments on the sheets strength.
Unprocessed virgin kraft fiber of radiata pine Pinus radiata was used as control for comparison purposes. OCC pulp presented a kappa number of 47, compared to Fractionating OCC pulp was effective in raising the range of long fibers in the stock from 68 percent to 85 percent, before and after fractionating, respectively.
Results from WFC sheets made in laboratory showed that there was no significant difference in board strength among boards made with unprocessed OCC fibers, fractionated and refined OCC, and P.
However, sheet strength decreased when refined OCC fibers were used. The results suggest that OCC fibers can produce WFC sheets with desirable characteristics compared to those of unrefined virgin kraft fiber of P. Some researchers used residues obtained from primary paper mills . Agricultural wastes are also of concern and currently mostly used as fuel, soil amendment, particleboard and building materails   . In this study, the mixtures of waste papers with various ratios and different raw materials like cement and sawdust of pine wood of different ratios have yielded to a new composite material.
Modification of wood composites by addition of appropriate materials has received much attention in recent years. In addition, incorporation of such materials into the composite matrix along with wood can help decrease the amount of wood material used and minimize environmental problems caused by agricultural and industrial waste materials. Evaluation of possible decay and termite resistance of particleboard containing waste tire rubber.
Particleboard specimens produced by adding waste tire rubber particles were assayed against white- and brown-rot fungi and termites in laboratory conditions. The particleboard specimens with waste tire rubber were not generally resistant against four fungi tested.
Only MUF-containing specimens showed considerably better performance in decay resistance tests using the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta; however, addition of waste tire rubber into those specimens did not provide resistance in comparison with control specimens without tire rubber.
Formosan termites were also able to degrade particleboard specimens with waste tire rubber. Researchers have worked on a wide variety of crops from many different regions of the world. One other lignocellulosic agricultural residue which could replace wood as the raw material for particleboard production is vine prunings.
Investigating the use of vine pruning stalks Vitis vinifera L. CV sultani as raw material for particleboard manufacturing. Sultani in Turkey as an alternative raw material for particleboard production. In Turkey, there are Every season, large quantities of vine prunings remain as by-products in the field, and unfortunately not utilized properly in related industries. In this study, vine pruning and wood Scots pine particles in various proportions were used as the raw material for three-layer flat pressed particleboards.
A commercial urea-formaldehyde UF resin was used as binder. Results indicated that the bending strengths of A, B, C and D panels met the minimum bending strengths value High performance lignocellulosic composites can be produced using fiber modification, fiber technology, and high performance adhesives Rowell In recent years the growing demands for raw materials in wood panel industry have led to research into the use of alternative lignocellulosic resources such as naturally durable wood fibers, preservative treated waste wood, agricultural fibers, waste tea leaves, tree bark, pine needles, pine cones, corn peels, peanut hull, hazelnut shell and husk, coconut shell, and soybean and wheat straw Schmidt et al.
Previous studies evaluated the mechanical and physical properties of, and formaldehyde emissions from, particleboard and medium density fiberboard MDF panels made with pinecones Buyuksari et al.
Particleboard and medium density fiberboard MDF panels were produced using stone pine Pinus pinea cones, which were mixed with either wood particles or fibers from pine and beech wood at various ratios. Specimens from the panels were subjected to AWPA E soil-block tests using two brown-rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta and two white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus for 12 weeks.
Specimens were also subjected to subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus, according to the JIS K standard test method for 3 weeks. Pinecone material in the furnish had no considerable effect on the decay resistance of particleboard and MDF specimens subjected to the brown-rot fungi; however, mass losses in the specimens exposed to the white-rot fungi were gradually decreased as the pinecone ratio in the furnish increased.
No increased resistance was observed in the specimens exposed to the termites. In some cases, the specimens containing pinecone furnish had greater mass losses compared to the control specimens. Oyagade, ; Sampathrajan et al. Particleboard is a composite product initially made mainly from wood particles as opposed to sheets or fibres. Selected physico-mechanical properties of cementbonded particleboard made from pine Pinus caribaea M.
Composite boards, using mixture of sawdust from pine Pinus caribaea M. The boards were tested for water absorption, thickness swelling, dry Moduli of rupture and elasticity and density in accordance with ASTM D The water resistance, strength properties and density measured possessed higher values in boards with high cement component but were inconsistently lowered with increased inclusion of coir in the different mixing ratios.
Researches have been conducted by both industry and research institutions to find this alternative materials Nasser et al. Agricultural residues are raw materials of renewable resources that can be utilized in wood industry Almeida et al. These alternative raw materials, can play a major role in the future of particleboard industry Ghalehno et al.
Improving mechanical and physical properties of particleboard made from vine vitis vinifera l. The main goal of this study was to improve mechanical and physical properties of particleboards made from vine Vitis vinifera L. Every season, large quantities of vine prunings are left as by-products in the fields, and unfortunately they are not utilized properly by the related industries. In this study, vine prunings and particles were used as raw material for three-layer flat pressed particleboards.
Small size experimental panels 56x56x2 cm were manufactured. The results indicated that some properties of the reinforced panels can give satisfactory values compared to control non reinforcement panels. Generally the reinforcement materials increased the mechanical properties of the particleboards. Such particleboards can meet the standards for isolation panels and interior-use. The reuse of this waste as a raw material to substitute mineral aggregates , provides an interesting alternative to meet the challenge of disposal that would solve environmental problem.
In this context, several studies have been conducted on various types of agriculture waste modified Portland cement material 1 Results have indicated that the composite posses lower density with more efficient both acoustic and thermal insulation. Although the result from those researches on insulation properties of this material were satisfying, but from the point of view of the durability , the main disadvantage is their sensitivity to the water absorption and dimensional instability in the presence of change in relative humidity.
The suitability of utilising flax by-product materials for lightweight cement composites. In this paper, the investigations on the use of the flax waste particles in the cement matrix, as a raw material, to produce lightweight construction materials, have been reported.
The flax particles were used as partial replacement of cement in mixture at different levels: The average size of the particles is less than 2 mm. However, the inhibitory effects of lignocellulosic material on hydration of cement represent the major obstacle against development of cement composite.
This inhibitory effect was evaluated according to the hydration test with different levels flax particles. The experimental investigation revealed that the increase of flax particles in the cement matrix increases the inhibitory index with a long setting time of the cement.
Although the addition of the CaCl2 and Sika chemical accelerators improved the compatibility between cement and flax particles, the inhibitory effects remain high. To overcome this problem, several chemical activators were introduced in this study to be used as flax particles treatment. The selected activators were: The results have shown that the chemical treatments reduce the inhibitory effect on hydration of cement, with a remarkable decrease in setting time, compared to the chemical accelerator effect.
The mechanical properties were also improved. However, the enhancement of the composites properties depends on the treatment type. They can be used as insulation panels by adding cement as additive to bond wood chips together. Among all these biomass materials, many researchers have been focusing on the possibility of reusing wood by-products in building construction.
There is considerable interest recently in by-products for application in green buildings. These materials are widely used as building envelope insulators or blocks. In this study, an experimental study was conducted to test stranded driftwood residues as raw material for possible thermo-acoustic insulation panel and environmentally sustainable brick. The thermal and acoustic characteristics of such a natural by-product were examined.
Part of samples were mineralized by means of cement-based additive to reinforce the material and enhance its durability as well as fire resistance. Several mixtures with different sizes of ground wood chips and different quantities of cement were investigated. The thermo-acoustic in-lab characterization was aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat, and acoustic transmission loss. All samples were tested before and after mineralization.
Results from this study indicate that it is possible to use stranded driftwood residues as building materials with competitive thermo-acoustic properties. In fact, the thermal conductivity was shown to be always around 0. The lignin powder showed a sort of intermediate behavior between the unbound and the mineralized samples. The use of these wastes as a raw material to substitute mineral aggregates provides an interesting alternative to meet the challenge of disposal and support environmental sustainability.
In this context, several studies have been conducted on various types of Portland cement material that has been modified with agricultural wastes Almeida et al. Results have indicated that the composites possess lower density, which results in greater efficiency for both acoustic and thermal insulation. In this study, the use of bagasse fiber BF and unbleached bagasse pulp BP in a cement matrix, as a raw material, to produce lightweight construction materials is reported.
The bagasse was used as partial replacement of cement at different levels: The average size of bagasse fibers was less than 2 mm. Although a reduction in the physical and mechanical strength was observed, the incorporation of either fiber or pulp increased the water of consistency and setting time.
However, the results presented in these studies reported a significant reduction of physical and mechanical performance after natural or accelerated aging, due to degradation of the lignocellulosic particles when exposed to the alkaline cement environment Mohr et al. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the accelerated carbonation curing process as an alternative to preserve sugarcane particles and the physical—mechanical properties of cement—bagasse panels after accelerated aging tests consisting of wetting and drying cycles.
The cement—bagasse panels were produced with a nominal density of 1. After 28 days of curing, the panels were subjected to accelerated aging tests. The results indicate that the accelerated carbonation preserved sugarcane bagasse, and carbonated panels had inferior physical properties and superior mechanical properties when compared to the noncarbonated version after accelerated aging tests, proving the efficiency of curing by accelerated carbonation as an alternative to the preservation of the physical—mechanical properties of cement—bagasse panels.
Agricultural wastes are also of concern and currently mostly used as household product, fuel, fertilizer, soil amendment, particleboard, and construction materials Khedari et al.
Several types of agricultural wastes including wood residues were used as materials for particleboards and construction such as coconut shell Almeida et al. Value added product from solid waste of paper manufacture and agricultural waste. Annually, large amounts of solid waste or sludge from waste water treatment of paper manufactures have been generated.
Utilization of the coconut shell of babacu (Orbignya sp.) to produce cement-bonded particleboard
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