The acronym CBD stands for Central Business District. In an urban area, a CBD is commonly known as downtown and can be recognized by older buildings, taller buildings, much commercial activity and residential areas that are characterized by apartments and condominiums, rather than. Start studying AP Human Geography Edison Urban Definitions. away from the Central Business District toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. Start studying AP human geography vocab ch 13 not in textbook. is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).
ap geography human definition cbd
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Guest , Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. City — a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics. Urban-The buildup of the central city and the suburban realm — the city and the surrounding environs connected to the city.
Urban MorphologyUrban Morphology The layout of a city, its physical form and structure. Berlin, Germany With wall above And without wall right 6. Five Hearths of UrbanizationFive Hearths of Urbanization In each of these hearths, an agricultural surplus and social stratification created the conditions necessary for cities to form and be maintained.
Athens, GreeceAthens, Greece above the acropolis below-the agora A node could exist for the downtown region, another where a university is situated, and maybe another where an international airport may be. Some clustering does exist in this model because some sectors tend to stay away from other sectors. For example, industry does not tend to develop next to high-income housing. Determining which urban model fits a particular city is often based on census data.
Bureau of the Census divides urban areas into census tracts, where each track contains approximately 5, residents. Data includes household incomes, gender, ethnicity, high school completions, and more. This information is not only collected but mapped for spatial analysis. Social scientists use the data and maps to analyze demographic patterns spatially and over time to help understands current and project future social, demographic, and economic trends.
Sociologists, geographers, and urban planners know that no city exactly follows one of the urban models of growth. But the models help us understand broader reason why people live where they do. Higher income households tend to live away from lower income households. Renters and house owners also tend to segregate from each other. In fact, renters tend to live closer to the CBD, whereas home owners tend to live along the outer regions of the city.
An excellent website on urban planning using geospatial technology is called the Urban Observatory. The website provides access to spatial data for cities all around the world and allows you to simultaneously view multiple cities at once. Compare and contrast visualized information for a greater understanding of life in the 21st century. Cities have local officials, can raise taxes, and are responsible for providing services to local residents.
The central city is a city that is also surrounded by suburbs and together is called an urbanized area. Census counts suggest that 70 percent of Americans live in an urbanized area. Bureau of the Census has created a way of measuring the influence cities have on surrounding regions, called the metropolitan statistical area MSA. The federal government has also created smaller designations for urban areas smaller than 50, residents and is called a micropolitan statistical area.
If there is any overlap between these two statistical areas, usually in the form of commuting and transportation patterns, the census has created the term combined statistical area.
This becomes problematic for housing, taxes for schooling, transportation, garbage disposal, and law enforcement.
If urbanized areas are legally incorporated into an existing city, the process is called annexation. In order for annexation to occur, the majority of the residents in the outer regions must vote to approve such an acquisition. The debate over annexation varies throughout the United States and truly is a local issue. As noted in the urban models, many lower income people live near the city, but lack the job skills to complete for employment within the city.
This often results in a variety of social and economic problems. Census data shows that 80 percent of children living in inner cities only have one parent and because child care services are limited in the city; single parents struggle to meet the demands of childcare and employment. Problems associated with lower income areas are often violent crime assault, murder, rape , prostitution, drug distribution and abuse, and homelessness, and food deserts. Most slums lack proper sanitation services, access to clean drinking water, law enforcement, or other essential necessities of living in an urban area.
A shanty town , also known as a squatter , is a slum settlement that usually consists of building material made out of plywood sheets of plastic, cardboard boxes, and other cheap material. They are usually found on the periphery of cities or near rivers, lagoons, or city trash dumps.
Based on reports by UN Habitat , it is currently believed that over 35 percent of the all those living in urbanized areas of the world live in slums and shanty towns. There are a variety of reasons why these types of living conditions develop that include: Middle class families are drawn to city life because housing is cheaper, yet can be fixed up and improved, whereas suburb housing prices continue to rise.
Pollution Urban morphology the form and structure of cities, including street patterns and the size and shape of buildings Urbanization A term with several connotations. The proportion of a country's population living in urban places is its level of this.
The process of this involves the movement of people to, and the clustering of people in, towns and cities which is a major force in every Geographic realm today, another kind of this occurs when an expanding City absorbs the rural Countryside and transforms it into suburbs. In the case of cities in the developing world this also generates peripheral shantytowns Urban population COREECTED A population composed of individuals who are not themselves engaged in agriculture yet have to be housed and fed, which poses a challenge to the urban economy World city Centers of economic, cultural, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together controlled the Global Systems of finance and commerce Zone in transition an area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD Zoning laws CORRECTED Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of buildings and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas.
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and other Stirrup fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods. In the resulting out-migration, real estate agents profit through the turnover of properties. In a city, the point with the greatest access to offices, Banks, stores, and other activities.
It is the most distinguishing feature and functions as a central Marketplace, a major transportation note, and an administrative Center, and it offers high-level services and contains heavy pedestrian traffic. The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract producers and consumers to its facilities, a city's reach into the surrounding region.
Theory proposed by Walter christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another. This explains the size and distribution of settlements through reference to competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed rural populations. Conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.
A system of small, City Center states where political organization revolved around the city itself. People not engage with agriculture lived in the city while Farmers resided in the surrounding hinterlands. Cities established by colonizing Empires as administrative Sinners, often they were established on already existing native cities, completely over taking their infrastructures. The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to Residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.
A visual representation of a city that categorizes parts of the city into CBD Fringe or frame, zone of transition, zone of independent workingmen's homes, residential Zone, and commuters Zone. Accumulative and sustained decline of manufacturing activities in a regional or national economy, involving the loss of both firms and jobs. Cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized Suburban environment.
In cities, areas that have concentrated populations of a particular ethnic group, such as Chinatown. Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry in distribution centers for large Geographic areas. The trend of middle and upper income Americans moving into City centres and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods.
Originally, an Italian term for areas of cities were Jews were forced to live. More broadly, poor Urban neighborhoods where minorities are concentrated. The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become Global in scale and impact.
The process of this transcend State boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales. An early 20th century mass movement of African Americans from the Deep South to the industrial North, particularly Chicago. Employment that is labor intensive, absorbs the remainder of the work force, and is open to nearly everyone but offers very low standard of living. In social theory, such as in structuralism, the hidden ideas and theories that helped create the visible world around us.
Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their population as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs. Because of these changes, this area loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty.
the outer most zone of the Concentric Zone Model that represents people who choose to live in residential suburbia and take a daily commute in the CBD to. AP Human Geography Models & Theories (not necessarily comprehensive! the CBD; 2) the transition zone of mixed residential, factory, and commercial use;. concentric zone model, CBD-(Burgess Model) divides the city into five concentric zones, defined by their function. edge cities, a term introduced by American.