Here are the 14 best foods you can eat to promote hair growth, Eggs are a great source of protein and biotin, two nutrients that may promote hair growth. They are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been. Which oil is actually good for my hair? 3. Castor Oil. Best oils for hair. Castor oil comes from castor beans and is great for hair growth, because it has all the. The hair shaft of mammals is divided into three main regions: Cuticle, cortex . [ 21,22,23] The ideal conditioner is capable of restore the hydrophobicity of the.
Is for It 3. Hair Great Your
With your fingers, work the gel into four manageable sections, from roots down to tips, evenly distributing it around your head.
Finally, hold the ends, shake your hands from side to side, then release to allow curls to spring back up to the roots. Set your dryer to low or medium heat and medium speed. Place the diffuser right at the roots, starting at the nape of your neck. Gently hold ends away from the dryer, letting them dry naturally blow-drying curly ends, which tend to be dehydrated, makes them frizzy. Move the diffuser around until all roots are dry.
Put a pea-size drop of pomade on your palm and rub your hands together. Grasp your hair in front, as if you were sweeping it into a ponytail, and run your hands from the hairline to the ends. Then let the curls go. This will help break up any gel crunchiness. Massage your scalp at the roots to add fullness. By Elizabeth Graves Elizabeth Graves. Share the gallery Pinterest Facebook. Everything In This Slideshow. Use the lowest heat setting that effectively irons your hair to avoid heat-related damage and always apply a heat protectant before you use a heat-styling tool.
Use a curling iron or curling wand if you want to create a wavy appearance in your hair. Avoid daily heat styling. A simple braid or an elegant one can be worn on days when you don't want to or shouldn't style your hair. Occasional hot rollers are okay, but you should mostly embrace your straight locks. Use shampoo and conditioner specifically designed for curly hair. Make sure your shampoo is sulfate-free and silicone-free, because sulfates can dry out curly hair even more, and silicones can build-up on curly hair.
Silicones are okay for your hair as long as you use a shampoo with Cocoamidopropyl Betaine or coco-betaine, and that the shampoo does not actually contain silicones. Wash your hair only as needed. It is important to avoid overwashing your hair to preserve your hair's natural oils. When you do wash your hair: Massage the shampoo into your scalp and let the suds run down to your ends. Put conditioner in at the midpoint of your locks and work it down to the ends.
Comb it in with a wide-toothed comb, if necessary. Scrunch your hair to help define the curls. Rinse your hair with warm or cool water to keep it from drying out. Blot your hair dry. Avoid rubbing your wet hair with a towel. Apply a deep conditioning treatment weekly. Then, apply a monthly hot oil treatment to give your locks a glossy shine. Avoid brushing your hair. Brushing will break your hair cuticles and cause frizz. Use a wide-tooth comb or your fingers to pull out tangles.
Put a leave-in conditioner on your hair before you style it. Style your hair when it's wet and try not to touch or scrunch it while it air dries. Skip any styling products that contain alcohol. Sprays that contain sea salt are great for defining curls, but make sure it also contains conditioning ingredients, as sea salt can dry your hair.
Try not to sleep with wet hair. If you have to, then braid or plait it in three or more sections. Also, sleep on a satin or silk pillowcase or head scarf to minimize frizz.
Perm or relax your hair no more than once every six weeks. Both perms and relaxers change your hair by changing the chemical bonds. For this reason, permed and relaxed hair is really vulnerable to breakage and damage. Minimize heat styling and blow-drying. Also, try not to dye your hair, if you're also chemically styling it. These processes can increase the risk of damaging permed or relaxed hair. Avoid relaxing your hair or getting a perm if your scalp is irritated. If you have scalp irritation, or any abrasions on your scalp, then you should not get a perm or use a relaxer.
Wait a few days or until your scalp is no longer irritated to relax or perm your hair. Use color with caution.
Coloring permed or relaxed hair is possible, but it can damage your hair. Try clip-in weaves for highlights instead. If you need color, wait at least three days but no more than seven days for your appointment or talk to your stylist about what's healthiest for your hair. Do your own dye job at home. You can do this easily if you're doing a quick coverage of gray hair and if the shade varies only slightly from your natural color.
Anything more complicated should be handled at a salon. Rub petroleum jelly around your hairline to keep the dye from staining your skin. Set your timer per the directions on the dye package. Wash the color out immediately and all at once when the timer goes off. Get color at a salon. If you plan to visit a salon for a dye job, then do not use box dyes. They contain harsh chemicals that can damage your hair.
Deep condition your hair a couple of days before your appointment. Moisturizing your hair will help it to hold color better. Also, if you can hold off, don't shampoo on the day of your appointment. You can tell your stylist "strawberry blonde," but he or she might have a very different vision of what that means than you do. A picture clarifies what you want. Take great care of colored hair. Keep your hair healthy and moisturized. Dry hair loses color quickly. Protect your hair when you head outside in the sun.
You can also use products that contain SPF. Use any kind of shampoo. For most male hairstyles, no particular shampoo is better than another. If you have dandruff, look for some shampoo containing ketoconazole, salicylic acid, tar, zinc or selenium sulfide.
Decide whether or not to condition. Curly, wavy or long hair, on the other hand, probably does need to be conditioned. Experiment with different brands to find something that you like. Protect your scalp from the sun. If you have thin spots, either rub sunscreen on them or use a spray sunscreen to keep your scalp from burning and peeling.
Care for thinning hair. You can try an over-the-counter hair regrowth product or talk to your doctor about a prescription. Disguise thin spots by using extra-body conditioner and putting a dab of styling gel over the spot. Don't use more than a dime-sized blob of gel. Once your hair is in place, you can finish it off with a bit of wax on the tips for definition and shine. Not Helpful 4 Helpful To keep your hair looking shiny all day, use leave-in conditioner, natural oils for the hair, or just get a nice brush that suits your hair type.
Not Helpful 12 Helpful There is no definite way to get rid of split ends without cutting, but to help split ends, fortunately there are a few tips. For a stay at home day, condition your ends with a deep conditioning product, and twisting your hair up into a bun all day. Rinse out at night. Use hair care products especially made for helping with split ends.
The complex resists shampooing from hair. Creme rinses are supposed to be rinsed with water. Setting lotions or mousse known as leave-on products are designed to be applied on wet hair or dry hair and left without rinsing.
They are aqueous based or alcohol-water solvent systems. These products do not form rigid bonds and act by enhancing interfiber forces and by providing a detangling effect to facilitate combing and style retention. Afro-ethnic hair presents variation of diameter at several points along the thread the diameter at twisting points is smaller than at other areas , less water content, and most importantly, an ellipsoid shape. Hair fibers present torsions at many regions along the thread, while Caucasian hair has a cylindrical cross-section.
The small angle of the waves of very curly hair makes it more susceptible to breakage, when mechanically worked making curly hair more difficult to comb without provoking frizz.
Although the production of sebum is high on African hair, curly and wavy hair they are more prone to have oily scalp but dryer hair fiber. Sebaceous glands of African descendants are frequently less active, when compared with the Caucasian ones, and they produce low amounts of sebum. This way, both scalp and threads are dry because they do not have good lubrication, even when the cuticle is preserved and the scalp tends to be less hydrated. Usually, the scalp is relatively dry in order to the naturally irregular distribution of sebum.
But, as the fiber is extremely sensible and prone to breakage it is not unusual that curly and straightened hair do not achieve long length and breaks during the growing process. Fine straight hair can transport sebum very well, and curly-coarse hair tend to minimize tress clumping and limpness. The use of conditioners and leave-on products decrease interfiber friction making hair easier to comb. Chargeability also decreases helping to improve dry combing.
The use of anti-dandruff shampoos can make hair more difficult to comb. High cleansing shampoos remove surface oils and increase chargeability by depositing small amounts of anionic surfactants onto the hair.
Less flyaway is achievable by lubricating the fiber surface and decreasing static charge. Grooming a nonlubrified hair may lead to hair breakage.
Abrasion and friction are impactant factors that cause hair damage by protein loss. The use of conditioners with oils and silicones are important to minimize the rubbing and friction of the cuticle cells for chemical treated hair and after the use of anti-dundruff shampoos. The number of hair follicles in Caucasians is This is the way the African descendants may experience some feeling of hair loss after performing a hair straightening procedure because when the hair loses volume, the scalp may be exposed because of the lower number of hair follicles.
Patients want their hair to be resistant to breakage with no split ends. Hair strength is a mix of hair body mass and resistance to breakage. A strong hair is a hair with its full capacity of growing healthy in both diameter and length and an intact cuticle and cortex.
We know that split ends are more likely to occur in weathered and oxidized hair. But, split ends happen when the cuticle is removed damaged and the cortex-cortex CMC serves as a route for the propagation of axial splits in the fiber, leading to the formation of cracks and split ends. Hair strength depends on cuticle integrity and amount of water in the fibers, conditions that are related to chemical damage.
Chemical damage by bleaches, dyes, straighteners and even sunlight can weaken hair and increase inter-fiber friction, leading to breakage. An important factor involved in hair breakage is the occurrence of tangles created by combing forces. Where the break occurs along the fiber, correspond to the point of higher combing forces. The type of fracture depends on hair condition and wet versus dry combing or brushing. Combing dry hair is more related to short segment breaks, and wet combing is related to long segment breaks.
The short segment breaks are more related to split ends. Straight to wavy hair combed dry, produces higher end pick forces than mid-length forces, but when wet, produces higher mid-length combing forces corresponding to where hair breaks and to the amount of breakage.
The work of combing highly coiled hair is lower wet than dry. The reverse holds for wavy to straight hair. Split ends form more readily from the abrasion friction in combination with torsional deformations grooming and styling. Splitting occur when the cuticle is damaged and weakened. Crack is formed in the cortex. Few cuticle layers do not hold the ends of the hair fiber together.
Also, highly oxidized cortex cell membrane by free radical chemistry is more susceptible to split. Hair treated with free radical cosmetics and exposed to sunlight is susceptible to splitting. Also, hair body is maybe defined as the structural strength and resiliency of a hair mass, sensed by patients as having a soft and firm touch and full volume.
Full volume is meaning a scalp full covered with terminal hair fibers that grow to the desired length without breaking. Strong hair appears as long, full, shiny, manageable hair. Manageable hair is the same as easy combable hair, perceived as soft hair, easy to finger comb. Weak hair appears as dull, with irregular length due to split ends , frizzed, rough, sometimes with low density on the scalp, tangled and difficult to finger comb. Prescription medications are often focused on improving scalp hair density.
Dermatologists are very used to prescribe minoxidil and finasteride in order to stimulate the anagen hair phase. But it is not always possible to obtain terminal thick hair fiber. Many postmenopausal women may achieve a better cosmetic look if the medical prescription is combined to cosmetic hair care products that may increase hair fiber diameter in a nonpermanent way. Fiber diameter is another key contributor to thinning hair, but it is less often the focus of medical or cosmetic treatments.
Acrylate polymer combined with dimethicone may affect the diameter and behavior of scalp hair fibers to counteract decreasing fiber diameters. It may be applied in the morning, leaving minoxidil to be used at bed time. In the work of Davis et al. Shampoo must aim the scalp more than a hair.
The entire scalp has to be rubbed with the shampoo from the front to the back, and small amounts of shampoo have to be applied on each region of the head under the hair. Appling the shampoo on the top of the head will increase hair friction and cause hair tangling. After full rinse of the shampoo, the hair must be gently towel dried, and the conditioner should be applied on the hair length avoiding the scalp.
The conditioner has to be completely rinsed out. Application of hair conditioners after shampoo will lower inter fiber friction and reduce combing forces. If the hair is curly, leave-on products may be used during wet combing. The use of leave-on products on straight virgin hair may cause an oily look and dull the hair. Gentle hair is dealing actions gentle shampooing, gentle towel drying, gentle brushing or combing is recommended. Many products may be used to lubricate and seal cuticle cells, such as silicones dimethicone and aminoterminal silicones and vegetable oils.
Grooming with a hair dryer or flat iron requires a silicone heat protector that will spread the heat along the hair fiber surface avoiding water boiling and the development of hair bubbles. Historically, the first hair straightener procedure was used for African hair and consisted on applying petrolatum based oils on the hair combined with hot irons or hot combs pressed to the hair so the device could slide easily and straighten the tresses.
This type of process produces only temporary straightening, functioning cohesive and adhesive forces in a highly viscous system to keep the fibers parallel. The habit of hair straightening was first used to allow manageability of very coarse hair but nowadays having straight hair has become popular all over the world.
Official hair straighteners are called chemical relaxers, and the effect of hair straightening is permanent. The high pH 9. In the contact with the cortex, the straightening product reacts with keratin, breaking and rearranging the disulfide bridges, which making the spiral keratin molecule soft and stretched. The chemical relaxers may not be applied on the scalp for they can cause skin burn. It is indicated that some petrolatum is applied along the hair line and on the ears before the application of the relaxer to prevent alkaline burns.
Alkalies react with keratin cystine groups producting lanthionyl residues, a stable thioesther crosslink. Disulfide bonds are cleaved using an alkaline reducing agent; then the hair is mechanically straightened using a comb during the reducing phase to restructure the position of disulfide bonds between new polypeptide keratins.
They also react with peptide bonds, hydrolytically cleaving this linkage, producing acid and amine groups, and producing residues of aspartic and glutamic acids. The relaxers are applied on prewashed hair and after usage, must be rinsed off with running water. They provide the most permanent hair straightening but if applied with the wrong technique may cause scalp burns and hair breakage. The pH of alkaline straighteners varies from 12 to above Hair is sensitive to pH value changes and alkaline solutions swell the fibers and open the cuticle scales.
This can make the hair susceptible to friction, lowering its resistance and strength. Hair straightening needs to be repeated every 12 weeks or longer. The emphasis should be only on new growth hair since repeated treatments can lead to hair breakage, which usually occurs at the junction of the new growth and previously treated hair. Careful application to new growth only and previous conditioning of the hair can help prevent excessive breakage.
In the work of Shetty et al. Sodium hydroxide lye-relaxer may straighten the hair in only 20 min. Although hair relaxers are desired for increasing length, Khumalo et al. This may be true because of the supercontraction effect. It is a chemical reducing agent which selectively weakens the hair's cystine bonds instead of disrupting the entire protein. Afterward, the thioglycolate must be oxidized neutralized with a special solution of hydrogen peroxide.
If a hot iron is applied during the process, the permanent straightening can be achieved. Hydroxides and thioglycolate are not mutagenic and show no evidence of carcinogenicity. If applied with the right technique and without touching the scalp, they are considered safe. The authors recommend that African descendants and individuals with very curly hair and sensitive scalp use no-lye relaxers.
Hydroxides and thioglycolate are incompatible with each other. If the hair is treated with hydroxides the same hair cannot be treated with thioglycolate.
Also, both are incompatible with bleached hair. So, it is not unusual to receive a patient complaining that the hair broke hair shed because of hair breakage after the use of a relaxer. To avoid mistakes like that, the salon professional must perform a test that consists on the application of the product on a strand of hair to prove compatibility.
If the hair breaks during the test, another relaxer must be tried, or the hair is too weak to be straightened. Hair conditioning substances may be added to thyoglicolate straighteners in order to minimize hair damage. The use of formaldehyde formulations became very popular since , and the first country to start this practice was Brazil in Rio de Janeiro. The formaldehyde solution was commonly used to sterilize medical materials and hospitals, and easy to find in every drugstore.
The practice soon became so popular that called attention of the health vigilance organizations in Brazil ANVISA that prohibited the use of any product containing formaldehyde in concentrations above 0.
Afterward, the formaldehyde was replaced by a potentially 10 times more mutagenic and the neurotoxic product belonging to the same aldehyde group: Easily obtained from hospitals and clinics, glutaraldehyde was commonly used as a sterilizer. It was soon not a home-made product anymore, but a demi-industrialized nonlegal substance, commercialized in every salon in Brazil.
The solutions came in beautiful colored bottles of ml to 1 liter. Still, consumers complained of burning eyes, strong smell and burning mouth and nose. To avoid sensorial discomfort while appling the BKT, the ingredients used today are based not on formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde, but on formaldehyde-releasers such as methilene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Both substances are capable of releasing formaldehyde when heated during the blow-dry and hot iron application.
Brazilian Keratin Treatment has increased popularity because the procedure is compatible with bleached hair and gives the hair a natural smooth, shiny look, impossible to acquire with the chemical relaxers.
Brazilian Keratin Treatment is known by many names such as albumine hair straightening, acetic acid treatment, and hair botox. The mode of action of the formaldehyde is different from the others relaxers because formaldehyde or other aldehydes are not hair straightening products.
The hair is remodeled straight because water breaks hydrogene bonds of the keratin molecule as happens in a regular blow-dry. The newly redesigned keratin is then kept in this shape because the formaldehyde crosslinks the keratin filaments in such a perfect alignment that the hair is now set straight and shines like no virgin straight hair is capable of. The light that strikes the hair reflects from the realigned keratin filaments and brings the effect of a brighter shiny hair.
A study by Simpson and Crawshaw[ 60 ] which analyzed the reactivity of formaldehyde and wool keratin, found that formaldehyde forms cross-links with the keratin amino acids; arginine, lysine, tyrosine, histidine, and the amide derivatives of aspartate and glutamate. The most interesting characteristic of the aldehydes in the hair is that they are compatible to every other chemistry available to hair treatment, such as bleaching, permanent dyes and hair relaxer, lye or no lye.
In Brazil, African and Hispanic hair is straightened first with chemical relaxers and afterwards treated with BKT to improve shine and softness. Carbocysteine is a compound named glyoxyloyl carbocysteine or oxoacetamide carbocysteine.
Carbocisteine is produced by alkylation of cysteine with chloroacetic acid and is a mucolytic agent with no effect on hair keratin. Glyoxylic acid contains an aldehyde functional group.
In fact, the aldehyde is not observed in solution or as a solid. In general aldehydes with electron-withdrawing substituents often exist mainly as they hydrate. Even though the aldehyde is a very minor component of its solutions, glyoxylic acid behaves as an aldehyde in its reactions and is considered a sensitizer and a toxic substance.
We may conclude that carbocisteine is not a hair straightening product by itself, and it is formulated combined with an aldehyde such as glyoxylic acid. Thermal treatments produce decomposition of tryptophan residues to kynurenine type oxidation products. The consequences are yellowing of white hair and darkening of bleached hair. After the thermal treatment with the addition of lipid products, hair may seem to be easier to comb.
However, after shampooing and removing the lipids, hair dries out exposing the damage caused by excess of heat. Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, the work of Lee and cols concluded that using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally.
This practice is obviously, very aggressive to the hair fiber proteins integrity. To the contrary, in , the Committee for Risk Assessment of the European Chemicals Agency disagreed with the proposal to classify FA as a known human carcinogen carcinogenicity Carc. They concluded that the creams showed an intense genotoxic response.
DNA-protein crosslinks measured in peripheral blood cells of hospital workers suggest that the formaldehyde might enter the systemic circulation of humans exposed to formaldehyde. Pierce at al conducted a study to characterize potential formaldehyde exposures of salon workers and clients during keratin hair smoothing treatments.
Considering that this profession in many countries, including Brazil, is not officially regulated, it is not discarded that the use of BKT may have some influence in the data of this work. A study of Maneli et al. Industry monitoring is needed to improve compliance and protection of hairdressers and consumers.
Reactions to cosmetic ingredients in decreasing order of frequency are: Fragrances, hair-coloring agents p-phenylenediamine preservatives: Formaldehyde, parabens, quaternium a formaldehyde donor ; imidazolidinyl urea; DMDM hydantoin. Most of the cases are caused by leaving on products. Short contact cosmetics usually do not cause irritation or allergy. Red henna is the dried and powdered leaf of Lawsonia inermis. Henna has been used as a dye for the skin, hair and nails.
Type I allergy is rare, and is mainly an occupational hazard in hairdressers sneezing, conjunctivitis, running nose, dry cough, dyspnoea, swelling of the face, or generalized urticaria. Lawsone is a potent oxidant of G6PD-deficient cells; topical application of henna may therefore cause a life-threatening haemolysis in children with G6PD deficiency.
There are many types of hair dyes classified according to the penetration of the dye to the surface or to deep parts of the hair shaft. In this chapter, we will approach the two most used types of hair dyes: Demi-permanent and permanent dyes. The main difference between the dyes are their capacity to reach the cortex and stay there in a permanent way or to not reach the cortex and stay shallow on the cuticle surface and be washable after about shampoos.
Those are the demi-permanent dyes. To overcome the cuticle and reach the cortex, the product must have an alkaline pH able to open the scales. Most of the times the permanent dyes use ammonia to increase the pH. Some products are referred to be ammonia-free, but instead, they carry ethanolamine with the purpose. Both substances remove the natural cuticle lipid, the metil eicosanoic acid, which confers hidrofobicity to the fiber. The use of permanent dyes may cause cuticle damage by removing the MEA and making the hair hidrophylic.
Permanent hair colors are the most commonly used hair colors, because of their longevity, and ability to lighten the original darker color. These are also superior for gray or white cover. The pigmentation is permanent and the white hair that shows after days after the application is not due to removal of the dye by shampoo but, instead, it is due to new hair growth. The permanent dyeing is an oxidation reaction that allows the pigments to get inside the cortex.
Para-phenylenediamine, para-toluenediamine, and para-aminophenol, and para-aminophenol, known as the primary intermediaries with hydrogen peroxide to liberate oxygen. And they also contain resorcinol, but this substance is gradually being removed from the ingredients in some markets, for safety reasons.
Once inside the cortex, they combine with aniline dyes, to produce the required color molecules. The roots need to be touch-up after 15—30 days and the product must be applied only to the new growth. Demi-permanent dyes do not contain ammonia or ethanolamine and for this reason are gentler on the hair than the permanent colors. They also contain hydrogen peroxide, resorcinol and para-dyes.
Hair Cosmetics: An Overview
Hair may be dead, but that doesn't mean you shouldn't care for it. You should wash it regularly. Actually, what you really need to be sure to wash is your scalp. Before you wash your hair, massage a few pumps of oil through your scalp and hair. It's a great opportunity to give yourself a head massage and stimulate blood . Fish oil is popular as a beautifying supplement for your skin and hair, of the benefits you'll get from fish oil are from their long-chain omega