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Oil Around Stores Brick Los 90102 and From Angeles, CBD Mortar Purchase

kvazimoda75
08.06.2018

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  • Oil Around Stores Brick Los 90102 and From Angeles, CBD Mortar Purchase
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  • Los Angeles Ca Marijuana Bud Delivery Find Medical Marijuana Dispensaries in Los Angeles, California Order Delivery Beta. . Retail shops and leisure dispensaries have sprouted up all around the . Los Angeles . S.o.l. Select Honey Oil Cannabis Concentrates Los Angeles. Best Online Bong Shop · Bongs For Sale · Bong Shop. List of Medical Marijuana Dispensaries in California, Los Angeles County, for serving as the highest medical marijuana supply service round. If you're questioning the place to buy weed in Los Angeles, the reply, for now, is West Hollywood. The oil cartridges are the strongest ones around I have to say!!! The banana OG Not to knock the brick and mortar, I live up the street from them. I would like to.

    Oil Around Stores Brick Los 90102 and From Angeles, CBD Mortar Purchase

    Had the worst experienc w this delivery service. Ordered the mix match. O waited 7 hours for it. When it came was all wrong. Contacted Ray to let him know. He said he'll switch it. After confirming the order twice and texting it back to me twice. Then next day the guy came w the wrong shit again. When I tried to contact Ray on 3rd day to let him know. The order he confirmed and texted me back twice was still wrong.

    He let me know they didn't even have what ordered to begin with. And he wasn't willing to do anything else. Never seen people run business like this before. Another great service received today texted my order this morning and around one I received my order chocolate bars, and pops and I'm trying the sugar for the first time will let u know. And of coarse flower cherry blossom is outstanding and the skywalker og wow can't say enough ray ur bbb is the best Cant wait for my next order anyone that really used your service knows this bbb is for real and all your products are all fire.

    So far I'm not at all pleased with this service. Called and texted my order yesterday. Ray said there was a screw up with new people working for him. Assured me I would get delivery today but then this morning claimed there was another screw up with the order.

    Placed order again and said I'd receive a call soon from the driver. Nothing yet, hours later. Not to mention every time I call now no one even answers the phone. Not sure how he expects to stay in business with this type of service or I should say non-service! Question, is BBB doing recreational deliveries? I've heard a ton of great things about Ray and BBB!

    Their buds are far superior to any of the so-called dispensaries in this area. My favorites are in this order: Blissful Wizard - Great flavor profile and sweet, calming effect! Gorilla Glue - Another amazing flavor profile and serious couch lock! Sweet tasting and very effective!

    Strawberry Diesel - Good, fruity flavor and energizing effect for daytime activities! Their buds are fat and dank and are covered in trichomes and I am a regular client. Thanks, Ray and all! I would have to say the driver I had john was amazing Best personality and helpful I'll be ordering again product was great also. I have tried several.. I love the lollipops too. Try it you will like it. Any problems or mix up is fixed with generous treats.

    No better weed around! BBB has the best quality and service in the area by far. Unlike patriots, I have never found a pubic hair in my order LOL! I've using bbb for several months now and only twice there was a mix up with the order. As soon as I texted him he got back to me and fixed the problem. Not only that, he sent several "extras" such as pre-rolled joints, lollipops and a chocolate bar. Not bad considering other similar experiences that were a real drag.

    The quality of the flowers has definitely increased recently. I frequent the BostonTrees subredit and used these guys today for a quarter of Blissful Wizard. I am really happy this stuff is super sticky, smelly and is purple in some spots!

    Thank you Bostons Best Buds for coming though I'm sick of being feeling ripped off thank you for the free lolly pop and doobie! Best prices and amazing buds. The menu is updated almost daily, and the strain selection is just amazing. Blue Dream was amazing, and Hashberry is amazing before bed. Thanks Ray, can't wait to order again! You guys always have great service. Ray has always recommended great flower. I have been smoking for 18 yrs and these strains blew me away!!!

    Everything has been 5 star quality and service has been top notch as well. Will be a loyal customer from here on. Keep up the great work!!!!!! I am actually the owner of a competing delivery service posting with permission from one of my patient's accounts. I have had the pleasure of speaking with Ray on multiple occasions and have found him to be a dedicated and passionate advocate for his patients.

    Ray is a great guy and BBB is a credit to the industry. New menu is like a a whole new world!! The fruity pebbles edible and coco pebbles edibles taste really good. They're not too hard or crunchy, they're soft and chewy: First time ordering from them. Top quality service, Fred is a really cool dude and was 30 min early! I am totally ordering again. These guys are very busy but always call me back and answer questions. The quality of the product and the service is above and beyond anything I have experienced with other dispensaries or delivery services.

    There weakest buds are stronger than some of the other companies strongest!!! This service has done great by me, always friendly and respectful to me on the phone. I have had delays but nothing noteworthy I expect to wait some time it's not a pizza, I see a delivery service with what I'm sure is many other people here. I trust the quality and service I've grown to rely on and I'm completely satisfied with.

    Keep up the great work BBB,and thank you Kevin for always hooking it up: This is my second order and I can't be happier! Have tried a few others in between and will stick with BBB. Hit it just right! Product is sxcellent, fresh and packaged well.

    Driver was extremely nice - super guy! BBB has a faithful follower! Don't bother with the rest when you can get the best from Bostons Best Buds! Boston Best Buds is an excellent business. One of my favorite things about them is the care that each person puts behind their work. Ray is incredibly intelligent and great to speak to.

    I was curious about a few things so I called and he was happy to take the call and educate me a bit. The delivery drivers use the best possible method of ETA notices. Even though it is a simple transaction when they get here, they somehow give me the feeling that even they feel responsible for my well being. Obviously I wouldn't go back if the product wasn't the best I could get. Depending on the situation, I'll smoke different types of flower, vape pens, or dabs and BBB continues to deliver the best in all categories.

    Boston best bud's went above and beyond after a mixup with my first order. Thank you Ray and Kevin the driver for making things right. They definitely are a good honest company with a nice selection of fire bud. The cherry blossom is phenomenal. Fantastic first time experience! Bud quality was excellent and delivery was super fast. Also included in the delivery were a few extra treats; a pre-roll plus a sample of Gorilla Glue.

    Everyone I dealt with was super friendly, helpful and discreet. I will definitely order from them again! As a patient and Cape Cod resident who has been doing this for a while now I can honestly say these guys are on point. These guy's know medicine and the donations are more than fair, everything came labeled and sealed very legit- I honestly can't wait for my next order. Five Stars across the board. By far the best quality of flowers, edibles and concentrates in the MA area. Every ounce is spilt up into 4 quarters of top notch flower, that no dispensary can even come close to on quality and price.

    These people complaining about that Rays the man, Kenny is a great guy I've made some great progress in dealing with my ptsd since switching to bbb. Would recommend these truly amazing people to anybody looking for a highly reputable and knowledge staff with the best products available. I'm a Boston native who spent the last 13 years living in Seattle, and upon moving home I had a real hard time finding the quality of concentrates, and flower I was used to out west; That is until Bostons Best and Ray came into my life.

    Every Strain I have tried has been top notch covered in trichomes , wonderful smelling, and the effects simply superb. The concentrates are out of this world, I've torched the strawberry shatter, and the Pure skywalker OG Oil yeah its 80 bucks, but I've been working on the same 4 grams for a month now its very potent!! I am very grateful for BBB and the great product they are moving out to the people.

    PS- Ken is awesome its always a joy to see him, and exchange a few war stories. Best bud, best service you can't beat these guys!!. Very impressed with the service.. Cherry blossom was as good as anything I've had in a while. I must say I'm truly impressed with the quality of the flowers I've tried a wide variety of them and they all have been different and unique in they're own way.

    I was very skeptical if the process was going to go smoothly. We'll I'm glad to say I was pleasantly surprised at how easy Ray and his staff made the whole process. I won't go anywhere else. On point every time. A-grade product with timely delivery. Ray your the best. Product is really good, people very friendly, only delivery place I have used since I found BBB, very pleasant to deal with. This place is amazing.

    Would recommend to anyone in need of top notch medicine. You can tell the difference. Service was prompt and Courteous. My delivery was awesome. He gave me a pretty accurate time window and was very cool on the phone. I really liked the Skywalker OG which almost put me to sleep. The free lollies in my order were root beer and also grape flavored- both delicious. My experience with Ray has been exceptional.

    He has been completely reliable, great to work with and the products are top shelf all the way! I've been dealing with a lot of delivery services in the past by for Boston best buds in the best quality flower always get a free pre-rolled in lollipop super professional employees very prompt hands down the best I've dealt with everything at Boston's best is Top Shelf. This is my first time ordering from BBB and they are very good!

    They even gave me extra free stuff and delivered within a few hours. I'm going to order more from them. And the driver was very nice and friendly too. I will def be using again. Ray is a great guy. He's been great with letting me supplement something as part of his deals if something is not in stock. Really appreciate your patience, thank you.

    Must be the 30th ounce ive picked up from BBB Great selection A through B grade bud. Ray seems like a good ass dude. These people know their Maryjane.

    Strains are un matched compared to other services. This must be the 30th ounce ive purchased from BBB. Like usual the quality is FIRE and service is official. Ray seems to be a good ass dude.

    This place is for real, off the hook: Turned into the best delivery service in boston. Hey Ray just wanted to say thanks for my delivery on Halloween, thanks for the great service ,driver kept me up dated on arrival ,p.

    Order gets messed up every time without fail or warning. But they promptly fix their mistakes, they deliver with professional and courteous drivers, their product from edibles to concentrates to flower r always top notch.

    They are knowledgable and the only place I use, ever period end of story. Ray, the product and service were fantastic and the quality was superb and the equivalent of High Times quality.. The service and quality of BBB's products are exceptional! The only bothersome issue I have would be not finding the 2 lollipops that should have come with my order last night of the Little Money Special plus the free lollipop that comes in every order.

    Great flower variety and great customer service are what make BBB one of only two delivery services that I will use. Ray sincerely cares about his customers. He loves to get phone calls, and is always there to give advice on products. Last week, one of the drivers, Fred, came out, and I noticed, while double-checking my order, that my pack of gummies was missing. Fred genuinely apologized, then reached into his satchel and hooked it up on a bunch of freebies for the trouble.

    He also said that the next time that he was in the area my location is outside his locale that he would bring the gummies, as well. I always get a freebie with every order, plus I got a free pre-roll because of the promotion right now, and Ray gave me a gram sample of a new strain that he thought would help me with my sleep issues, which it did!

    For the delivery mixup, I got a mg white chocolate and almost bar, which was really tasty and killed my insomnia. You have a customer for life! I've been paraplegic since , and my legs tend to jump around. I've recently become a regular customer, and it's truly been a blessing! There are a few strains that knock my leg spasms out!! Doesn't seem like a lot but my feet were Hamburger from kicking whatever's in front of me!

    They're no good to walk, but they want to line dance in my sleep, or awake! So I eat 3 to 5 gummies or a pop, or smoke a bowl and I watch the twitching get less and less until it stops!!

    My doctors have taken me off five other medications that weren't helping anyway!! This is such a relief I've got my life back! Ive used Boston best buds like 25 times. They are the best in area when it comes to Bud quality, selection, and service. Deliveries are smooth every time.

    Strains are fire, reccomend Skywalker og all day. Shout out to fred -new driver is a chill dude. Just placed my first order and I am very happy, everything and more. Definitely the service I will continue to visit from now on. Quality of the bud is just as listed and I do recommend the edibles from what I've tried very professional and good.

    The delivery driver was excellent he kept me informed within minutes of his true arrival and was kind and discreet. Would recommend this delivery over others I've tried this is by far the best service I've seen yet. Amazing flower- the cherry blossom is fruity and packs a punch. Best edibles around - stronger than dispensaries.

    I placed an order mid day on a Saturday and it was here within the hour. Cannot rate these guys high enough - pun intended. Just made my first purchase and so happy I did! Great service and extra goodies is always a plus!! Thanks again for everything! I will definitely be back! Excellent first-time experience buying from them! Top quality flower and amazing hash plus other goodies i sampled.

    I immediately noticed their products seemed fresher and much-higher in strength therefore effectiveness than the others I've tried. Ray's great to deal. Easily the best option for medical marijuana in a greater Boston area. Everybody is super friendly to deal with and the buds are super frosty. I recently ordered the Little Money Special from BBB and I was blown out of the water with how potent the flowers and medibles are which complimented the wonderful customer service.

    I spoke with Ray on the phone and he put my mind at ease with just how informative and charismatic he was about.. I met with John at the time he told me he would arrive and kept my mind at ease throughout the entire process.

    I definitely recommend Boston's Best Buds for anyone looking for high quality products with excellent customer service at an extremely low price. They really care about the patients and they have better products then any other service I have used. Dont bother overpaying for garbage elsewhere this is the place to go!

    I don't know how else to say it. Their products are superior to the leading dispensary in the area Thereafter, in its second French occupation, it became the administrative capital of Acadia, defending against the neighbouring New Englanders to the south-west, who by this time far outnumbered the Acadians. In addition to extensive analysis of the footprint and architecture of the fort, the Faulkners describe the changes in French ceramics, foodways and smoking habits of the enclave over these occupations.

    Denise Hanson has reported on a small sample of ceramics and other artefacts from this site consistent with the larger assemblages at Forts St Marie and Pentagoet. By the last quarter of the nineteenth century, most of these outposts had been destroyed, abandoned or, as was the case of Fort Pentagoet, replaced by the more undefended enterprise of a lone trader.

    Eighteenth-century Acadian agricultural settlement The eighteenth century saw great growth in the permanent residents of Acadia, the population doubling every twenty years and reaching a maximum of 10,, by These agricultural settlements were concentrated in the principal basins of Nova Scotia: Beaubassin, Minas and Belleisle.

    Here Acadian farmers used their systems of dikes, originally developed for salt production, to produce rich farmland on 2 Since , more than a hundred Acadian house depressions, along with their associated dikes, have been identified in this region. These were one-room wooden structures, with central cellars.

    The chimney was located on the gable end, and an exterior bread oven generally abutted it. The best recorded of these was the House 1 at Belleisle excavated by David Christianson in , which measured On the inside, walls were apparently finished with a red, straw-tempered clay that was apparently whitewashed with a fine white slip and showed the impressions of the wooden lath to which it was attached.

    A similar structure has also been excavated at the Melanson Settlement near Annapolis. On western Prince Edward Island, Rob Ferguson successfully used electrical-conductivity surveying, a type of remote sensing, to locate a house very similar to the Belleisle construction.

    This was the homestead of Michel Hach-Gallant, the first Acadian settler of Prince Edward Island, and ancestor to many of the modern Acadian residents. Further suggestions of how such houses were constructed come from above-ground archaeology. In the late s, a nineteenth-century shopfront in Annapolis, Nova Scotia, was found to contain an earlier late eighteenth-century Georgian structure.

    While restoring the latter as a historic showpiece, it was discovered that it in turn contained a smaller, mud-walled structure, probably constructed by Acadians early in the eighteenth century. Unlike the interwoven branches that characterise English wattle-and-daub construction, the framework for these walls were lath sprung between cracks in the uprights at about 10 cm intervals, a construction reminiscent of seventeenth-century English and Dutch architecture.

    The walls were clearly whitewashed on the interior, like the structure at Belleisle. Subsequently, Barry Moody, historian at Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, has identified three similar standing structures within the region.

    Louisbourg was not an ethnic Acadian settlement, but rather a French mercantile city. It was built from scratch, beginning in , at the behest of Louis XIV to maintain a last vestige of French control in this region against further English incursion.

    The city was taken by British and New England forces in , restored to France the following year, and finally retaken and its fortifications demolished in Louisbourg was the site of massive excavation and restoration between and , and has been open ever since as a major living-history museum, on a scope comparable to Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia.

    The assemblages recovered, which represent the local French trading sphere in the eighteenth century, have provided vast type collections against which collections from true Acadian sites are often measured. Food way s and dress The data from these Acadian excavations have been incorporated into a number of studies dealing with lifeways in Acadia and New France.

    Alaric Faulkner has documented the surprising measures taken by seventeenth-century French entrepreneurs and their followers to maintain the appearance of gentility, even in the most remote, unpopulated regions of frontier Acadia. Similarly, using ceramic and documentary evidence from the Roma settlement on Prince Edward Island and the Fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia, Jean-Franois Blanchette has traced the transition from medieval cooking practices to the oven-to- 3 Further reading Blanchette, J.

    Excavations at a pre-expulsion Acadian site, Curatorial Report 65, Halifax: Nova Scotia Museum, pp. An archaeological perspective, in P. Boston University Press, pp. Acadian material life and economy, Curatorial Report 65, Halifax: The degree and intensity of the change is based on numerous factors, including the length and circumstances of contact, the number of individuals involved, the technological sophistication of the peoples involved and even the amount of cultural difference between the peoples.

    Anthropologists use several specific terms to refer to the changes that can occur in an acculturative process: The anthropological literature on acculturation is vast, but many anthropologists now consider the various forms of acculturation to be somewhat idealised. Anthropologists know that most culture contact situations are extremely complex, and it is often difficult to assign neat categories to describe the changes that have 4 Some anthropologists would be reluctant under any circumstances to assign specific terms to a particular contact situation, because doing so may suggest that all culture contact situations should be similarly portrayed.

    For them, too much local variation exists for such characterisations. Some anthropologists would not even use the term acculturation at all, because it implies that cultures act monolithically with little room for individual action or personal motivation. The study of acculturation has played a large role in much historical archaeology, even though the use of the concept is problematic. Most importantly, historical archaeologists have used acculturation models in their investigations of the contact situations that occurred because of the worldwide spread of European colonists after about AD The historical archaeologists interest in the process of acculturation has stemmed largely from the belief that artefacts can be perceived as surrogate measures of the degree or intensity of culture change.

    This understanding of acculturation was particularly prevalent in the historical archaeology practised before the s. In the early s, George Quimby and Alexander Spoehr, two US anthropologists working with Native American cultural history see Native Americans , proposed that a past cultures degree of acculturation could be understood in a systematic manner by examining the artefacts found at the sites the people once occupied. In their scheme, the varieties and nature of the artefacts found could provide important clues about the process of acculturation.

    In other words, the artefacts functioned as tangible evidence of the acculturative process. A European artefact with no native counterpartlike a glass bottlecould be used to suggest a relatively high degree of acculturation, because in using the bottle the natives would have had to incorporate a wholly new object into their traditional culture.

    An even higher degree of acculturation could be indicated by objects that demonstrated the use of European materials and techniques, but which were actually made by native craftpeople. Artefacts that mimicked traditional artefacts, but which were made with new materialslike an arrowhead made from a piece of a European glass bottleindicated a relatively low degree of acculturation.

    Quimby used these ideas to construct an acculturative history of the Native Americans who lived in the western Great Lakes of North America between the years and As a basis of his interpretation, Quimby employed a typology see typologies or classification of artefacts that consisted of seven types, extending from new types of artifacts received through trade or other contact channels to old types of artifacts modified by the introduction of a new element of subject matter.

    The first category included all those artefacts that were new to the Native Americans, such as guns and steel traps. The second category encompassed old cultural elements modified with new ideas, such as rock paintings depicting Europeans or European objects. All other excavated objects would fall somewhere in between.

    Quimby used this framework to identify three historical periods in western Great Lakes Native American history: Each period in the sequence was characterised by greater acculturation and, because more European artefacts appeared at the sites of the last period, the Native Americans who lived then were judged to have experienced more acculturation than those who had lived in the earlier two periods.

    Acculturation is a theoretically sound idea, and Quimbys use of the concept has a certain validity. Peoples in contact do undergo cultural change, particularly in situations where one culture has technological superiority and the desire to change the others culture, such as occurred in historic North America.

    Archaeologists readily accept that material culture has the ability to alter a peoples way of life. However, historical archaeologists who have examined acculturation in detail have come to realise that the process of cultural contact is too complex to permit easy understanding. The process is so complicated that some 5 General elements of acculturation may be consistent throughout the world in an idealised sense, but the precise way in which the process occurs varied over time and across space.

    Archaeologists cannot assume that the process has occurred the same way everywhere. Many factors may account for the diversity in the acculturative process, but one of the most important elements is unquestionably the way in which the cultures each adapt to the contact situation.

    One problem with the acculturation model is that it contains the implied assumption that all peoples react to culture change in the same way. In truth, many cultures have found creative ways to resist acculturation while accepting the artefacts of the newly introduced culture.

    The use of a strict model of acculturation that relies on the examination of artefacts must also assume that the use, function and meaning of an artefact remained constant over time. This assumption is easy to refute. A new copper kettle, for example, could be used by Native Americans to cook their meals shortly after they received it.

    After a few years, the owners of the kettle could have cut it into many pieces to make triangular dress ornaments. These objectsthe whole kettle and the pieces of the kettlewould have had completely different meanings within the Native American culture, depending upon the moment upon which they were observed. The archaeologist does not see the native men and women actually using the objects, and does not know that the small copper ornaments were ever used as a kettle. When an archaeologist encounters the objects, he or she concludes that they served as decorations and had meanings possibly relating to beauty, fashion and perhaps even social standing.

    The acculturation concept can also be viewed as problematic by descendant communities: For some people, the word acculturation conjures up images of surrender or cultural capitulation rather than the resistance that may be required to maintain a treasured way of life. The concept of acculturation is clearly a difficult one for historical archaeologists to apply. Nonetheless, the concept still has validity because cultures do change over time when they come into prolonged contact with other cultures.

    Most archaeologists working in the year would use the concept cautiously and downplay the older ways of examining it. By understanding the complexity of the culture contact, historical archaeologists have learned that they must combine acculturation with resistancein what is often a cultural give-and-takeand most would agree that much of the tangible evidence for acculturation may be subtle.

    Further reading Quimby, G. University of Wisconsin Press. ORSER, JR aerial photography Aerial photography, also termed high-altitude imagery or overhead photography, refers to images of archaeological sites or areas taken from above.

    Aerial photography constitutes an indispensable tool for archaeologists for at least two important reasons: The use of aerial photography in archaeology began in the early s when a British archaeologist tied a camera to a balloon to get a better view of a site he was excavating in India. Since then, archaeological practice has kept pace with the development of new technologies, and todays archaeologists can use photographs taken from satellites and even from the space shuttle.

    Not all aerial photographs, however, must be made with the assistance of aircraft because many archaeologists have employed cleverly designed bipods and tripods to take pictures from above the ground. Archaeologists have been able to produce useful images of their sites by simply raising their cameras several metres off the ground with the aid of these instruments.

    Some archaeologists also still make use of balloons to take pictures from the air, and archaeologists excavating in urban areas can often take aerial pictures from a nearby tall building.

    Photographs taken from the air help archaeologists to document their findings. Archaeologists often excavate large sites or buildings that cannot be properly appreciated from a ground-level perspective alone. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to assess the spatial extent of the site or building, and provide an important additional method of keeping a record of the progress of the excavation.

    Aerial photographs of entire sites can also be used by future archaeologists to indicate the extent of a past excavation. The use of aerial images to discern cultural features is particularly noteworthy. An aerial perspective often makes it possible to perceive the outlines of relict buildings, the routes of disused roads and trails, the position of old fence and lot lines, and shallow depressions that may otherwise be overlooked.

    When used in this manner, aerial photography is both a remote-sensing tool that can help to guide an archaeologist to an undiscovered site, and a research tool that provides new information. Aerial photography is especially important for archaeologists interested in large-scale settlement patterns or landscape features, instances where a view from above the earths surface offers a unique perspective.

    The use of high-altitude images assists archaeologists working in rural Europe, for example, to document the locations of old field boundaries, abandoned villages and military fortifications. Aerial photography used in this manner helps an archaeologist to read the landscape in ways that would otherwise be impossible.

    It is primarily concerned with the documentation, investigation and recovery of the material remains and physical traces of maritime communities, technologies and practices.

    Such remains can take a wide variety of forms, ranging from, most obviously, shipwrecks and their contents, to such diverse features as tidal mills, fish traps, harbour installations, naval defences, coastal settlements, inundated sites and submerged landscapes.

    Unlike nautical archaeologists, whose principal interests are restricted to the study of different types of sea-going vessels and the techniques and practices associated with their construction and use, maritime archaeologists take a more holistic approach that encompasses the full range of maritime activities, and not just those related to seafaring.

    By the same token, maritime archaeology is not simply an alternative term for underwater archaeology, since, given its holistic stance, it is as equally concerned with the archaeological remains found on the foreshore and intertidal zones as with those that occur on the sea-bed.

    All of these different facets of maritime culture can receive material expression, and are thus amenable to archaeological investigation. When linked with other types of historical sources, such as documentary records, maps, oral traditions and pictorial evidence, the potential for studying changes and continuities within maritime societies over extended periods becomes considerable. In sub-Saharan Africa, the practice of underwater, let alone maritime, archaeology is very much in its infancy.

    This is partly due to factors of cost and inadequate training, but it is also due to a general lack of appreciation of the research potential of maritime environments and the importance the sea had to many African societies. Such attitudes are common among land-based archaeologists throughout the globe, and are by no means unique to Africa. However, in the absence of a well-trained cadre of specialists, adequate funding and access to suitable equipment, the challenge of integrating a maritime perspective to better- established land-based approaches is especially great.

    This is unfortunate, given the rich potential offered by the continents extensive coastline, the regular exploitation of maritime resources by its indigenous populations and the complex patterns of their interaction with other parts of the world. Despite the long history of engagement with Europe and the Americas, an extensive documentary record and the existence of several protected landings along the coast, maritime archaeology is least well developed in West and West-Central Africa.

    Thus, for instance, there have been no systematic, scientific surveys of either the inshore waters off the main landfalls or any of the clusters of offshore archipelagos, such as the Cape Verde Islands, for shipwrecks.

    There are also numerous remains of British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Danish forts along the Atlantic seaboard, and of trading posts and towns of mixed African and European composition. Extensive archaeological investigations by Christopher DeCorse at the Gold Coast town of Elmina in southern Ghana, and Kenneth Kelly at Siva on the former Slave Coast, in the Republic of Benin, have been particularly informative, especially with regard to the changing dynamics of culture contact, the archaeological record of European expansion and the impact of the Atlantic slave trade.

    Unfortunately, despite their proximity to the sea, archaeological research at these sites has provided only minimal insight into the specifically maritime aspects of these communities. Rather more maritime archaeology has been conducted further south on the Namibian and South African coasts. Whipped by fierce storms coming in off the South Atlantic and prone to strong currents, the dangers to shipping along the Namibian coast are well known.

    The remains of many wrecks can be seen at several points on the shore, most famously along the stretch known as the Skeleton Coast. Despite featuring in many popular books, these and other traces of maritime activity have yet to be seriously studied, with the important exception of Jill Kinahans survey of nineteenth-century fisheries around Sandwich Harbour.

    The archaeological remains here include those of an iron barque, deliberately beached so as to provide a storeroom, as well as traces of former fishing sheds and houses, and at least one sizeable midden. Comprising mostly the remains of different species of fish and shellfish, this probably represents the debris generated by commercial processing of fish catches, prior to curing and crating for onward shipping to Mauritius via Cape Town.

    Ships registers, charts lodged with the British Hydrographic Department, the report from a joint Commission of Enquiry by the South West Africa and Cape Colony governments, and an aquarelle by the renowned artist Thomas Baines, among other historical sources, provide vivid insights into the life of this community and identify the remains as belonging to two different commercial enterprises.

    Now known as Oudepost I, extensive excavation here has provided important insights into the often complex relationships between the indigenous Khoisan populations of the 8 Western Cape, Dutch settlers and Europes metropolitan centres.

    The chance discovery, on the adjacent beach, of the only significant subsistence remains left by the forts occupants underlines the importance of integrating survey work in the intertidal zone with land-based investigations when dealing with sites in a maritime setting.

    The most import Dutch settlement was, of course, the revictualling station established for the VOC by Jan van Riebeeck in beside Table Bay, which later developed into the colonial city of Cape Town.

    Somewhat surprisingly, despite the growth in importance of the settlement, no formal harbour facility was built here until the mid-nineteenth century. The problem was brought to a head in July , when no less than ten separate vessels ran into difficulties during fierce winter storms. Of these, five were stranded on the beach and one was wrecked. The following year, the building of a stone jetty was authorised, but it was not until that work actually began on what became Cape Towns North Wharf.

    Rescue excavations in this area during the s, in advance of redevelopment, uncovered the remains of parts of this structure, providing additional information about its construction to that gleaned from archival sources.

    Over the centuries, many other ships were wrecked in Table Bay. Of these, the wreck of the VOC ship Oosterland, which sank on 24 May , has been the most systematically investigated. Located in the eastern part of the bay, some m offshore, and in 57 m of water, debris from the wreck covers an area of at least 14, m2. Within this general scatter, most finds are concentrated in a 45 m2 area, which has been the subject of detailed survey and test excavations. Material recovered from the site included numerous types of Chinese and Japanese porcelain bowls, plates, vases and figurines.

    Available documentary sources indicate that, between , VOC merchants only rarely acquired porcelain for the company, suggesting that the Oosterland assemblage may have been an illicit cargo purchased for private resale.

    The Dutch were not the first Europeans to reach Southern Africa, however. The Portuguese had preceded them by over years unless one accepts the claims made by Herodotus in Book 4 of his Histories, concerning the circumnavigation of Africa by the Phoenicians. Portuguese ships, under the command of Bartolomeu Dias, first rounded the Cape in A decade later, a second expedition, led by the navigator and explorer Vasco de Gama, pushed further up the East African coast, reaching Mombasa in April The arrival of Vasco da Gamas fleet marked the beginning of a new era of European exploration, commercial exploitation and colonial expansion, which had profound consequences for Africa and numerous other lands, including the Indian sub-continent and the Moluccas Spice Islands.

    Inevitably, shipwrecks occurred, and there are many documentary sources concerning these and those of other European vessels , sometimes written by survivors. As well as indicating the approximate location of wrecks around the shores of South Africa, Mozambique and Madagascar, these accounts also contain valuable information about the local inhabitants of these areas in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Archaeological traces of these catastrophes are less numerous. The remains of a camp left by the survivors from the wreck of the Sao Goncalo, which sank in in Plettenberg Bay, South Africa, have been excavated, and at least two Portuguese wrecks located, one in the Seychelles, and one in Mombasa harbour, Kenya. The latter vessel, the Santo Antnio de Tann, was originally a forty-two-gun frigate built in Bassein, north of Bombay, in At the time of its sinking off Fort Jesus, towards the end of , the S.

    Antnio, now carrying fifty guns, headed a small fleet sent by the Viceroy of Goa to relieve the town, which had been under siege by Omani-led forces since the previous year. The underwater excavations, directed by Robin Piercy, were the first to be conducted in East Africa. All of the surviving hull was exposed and recorded in situ, before being reburied.

    Over 6, artefacts and fittings were recovered, 9 As with the Oosterland ceramics, the latter may have been part of a private cargo. A well-preserved series of wall paintings depicting Portuguese ships, groups of men, fish, animals and other features also survives on one of the bastion walls within Fort Jesus built These have yet to be studied in detail, although at least one can be linked to a named ship, the S. Several depictions of earlier, non-European vessels, such as dhows and mtepe a type of sewn boat , are known from various Swahili settlements along the Tanzanian and Kenyan coasts.

    The engravings provide some of the best evidence, until such time as actual shipwrecks are recovered, of the range of vessels plying the trade routes of the western Indian Ocean before the arrival of the Portuguese. They also complement existing documentary sources concerning the vessels used in this trade, especially the reference in the mid-first-century AD text, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, to the use of sewn boats on the East African coast.

    A further value of the Periplus is that it includes a description of a sea voyage along the coast from a trading emporium known as Opone just south of the Somali Peninsula, to the ancient town of Rhapta.

    The latter is described as the principal, and most southerly, harbour of the Azanian i. Despite its alleged importance, and the growing number of finds of Roman imports from mainland coastal sites and the offshore islands, the site of Rhapta has yet to be located. The settlement of Opone, on the other hand, was possibly situated on Ras Hafun Somalia , where traces of two coastal settlements containing Roman, Egyptian, Mesopotamian and other imported ceramics, spanning the last century BC to the fifth century BC, have been excavated.

    Detailed study of these imports has provided an indication of the shifting patterns of trade over these centuries between Africas Red Sea ports, such as Berenike Egypt and Adulis Eritrea , and those of the Persian Gulf, Cambay and southern India. Also adding to this picture, once they have been fully studied, will be the mass of imported finds and c. Regional trade and late survival of sewn ships in East African waters, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology Notes on a classical maritime site, Azania British Archaeological Reports, S Originally conceived to reveal the unrecorded aspects of black history, Theresa Singleton describes the discipline as the study of the formation and transformation of the New World by Africans.

    African American archaeology is an important part of diasporic research. Archaeologists who are interested in African American archaeology have focused their research on a variety of settings that reflect the diversity of the African American experiences on colonial, antebellum and postbellum plantations, farms, maroon communities, urban house lots of enslaved and free, and black churches, just to name a few.

    Plantation studies The greatest majority of African American archaeology has centred on slave and tenant house sites on plantations, since the quarter community is viewed as the place where African American culture was born.

    Archaeological data are crucial elements for the interpretation of the formation of African American culture and the everyday lives of slaves and black sharecroppers, because of the paucity of accounts written by African Americans on plantations.

    The multidisciplinary anthropological approaches used by archaeologists in this endeavour incorporate traditional archaeological data with information from historical documents, ethnography, ethnohistory and architectural studies. Motivated by black activism, the s and s investigations of African American archaeology set out to tell the story of Americans forgotten or underrepresented in the written record.

    The complex, dynamic, reciprocal, but unbalanced, relationship between plantation owner and plantation labourer is a key element in plantation studies. For example, archaeological studies of slave housing that blend archaeological, architectural and documentary data suggest that dwellings were small and humble to maintain the subordinate position of the inhabitants, but snug enough to support stable slave family life which was in the planters best economic interest.

    Larry McKees analysis of faunal remains zooarchaeology recovered from various slave house sites indicates that slaves were not mere recipients of rations, but were active participants in their food procurement see food and foodways and made a series of rational choices about the source and types of food consumed in the quarter community. For example, enslaved African Americans had to choose how much time to invest in hunting or gardening by considering the returns and risks involved in food production and collection.

    Amy Youngs study of hunting at Saragossa, the antebellum plantation and the modern-descendant African American rural community, indicates that hunting was much more than a food procurement behaviour. As a group activity, it functioned to bind the community together and provide means for men to contribute important resources meat to the community.

    Choices in game and hunting styles were and continue to be important. Another key component is the study of ethnic identity, looking especially for the continuities of practices especially building and religious practices identified in slave and tenant quarter communities with 11 Leland Ferguson demonstrates continuity in South Carolina slave communities with Bakongo Central African traditions through the continued use of the Bakongo cosmogram found on the base of slave-made colonoware pots see colonoware pottery.

    He also argues that the small colonoware pots reflect the persistence of African foodways in slave communities. Archaeologists have suggested that early houses in the South Carolina low country for example at Yaughan and Curriboo plantations were built in the West African wattle-and-daub style.

    Other evidence of ethnic identity in the form of charms such as pierced coins for healing and conjuring has been recovered from numerous plantation sites in the New World. The use of magical charms does not merely signify continuity with African religious traditions, but that African Americans found new ways to express their religious values. The religious practices reflected in the artefacts recovered from various archaeological sites were not static but were transformed through time.

    Archaeologists continue to consider the cultural processes of syncretism and creolisation to understand these transformations. Beyond the plantation A number of very interesting studies of African American life outside of the plantation context present important and significant advances to our understanding of the breadth of the African American experience. Such studies have primarily focused on free black rural settlements and free black and enslaved urban communities.

    In many ways, the themes of this research are similar to those within plantation contexts. For example, several studies conducted as part of the Archaeology in Annapolis, Maryland, programme are concerned with the diversity among African Americans, recognising that African American culture is not monolithic.

    These studies explore how capitalism and consumer choice in the acquisition and use of ceramic see ceramics types was a factor in how African Americans defined economic and social distinctions within the black community.

    African Americans of the late nineteenth century also exercised their consumer choices and used objects like dishes and knick-knacks to distance themselves from the racial stereotypes that white Americans had constructed. These important studies show how much archaeologists can learn about the relationship between racial perceptions and material objects.

    Joseph, in various cultural-resource management studies conducted in the southeast, has examined antebellum African American communities. He argues that for those Africans able to escape the bonds of the plantation, both enslaved and free, southern cities provided a set of experiences and opportunities that were distinct from those available in rural locations. He suggests that African Americans were able to make use of liminal and marginal areas in towns and cities plots of land where ownership was contested and plots that were flood-prone, for instance to establish communities, and thus access the opportunities afforded by city life.

    Liminal and marginal areas, by their very nature, were more accessible to African Americans during the antebellum period, who were usually denied land ownership. In addition to serving as a religious centre, the church was also a medical facility, an important health care centre at a time when blacks were denied access to white hospitals and clinics.

    The abundance of medicine bottles and other medicinal objects highlights the fact that the black community did not passively accept the inferior health care that was characteristic of this era in American history 12 The archaeology of maroon communities is in early developmental stages.

    Kathleen Deagan and others investigated Fort Mose in Spanish Florida, which was established in by black settlers who fled the enslavement of British colonies. The research at Fort Mose illustrates the dynamic character of power and resistance. The Spanish granted the settlers of Fort Mose freedom in return for their help in defending Spaniards from the British. The actions of the occupants of Fort Mose were both resistance to slavery in British colonies, and an accommodation to Spanish hegemony.

    Maroon communities appear to have been rare in the USA. However, work on maroon communities outside our boundaries is examining how these dynamic and influential groups were connected with the outside world. Preliminary work at Palmares, a series of seventeenth-century maroon villages in north-eastern Brazil, hints at the economic and social interactions of African, Native South American, Dutch and Portuguese societies, highlighting the fact that African and African American communities were not isolated but inextricably linked to the global economy.

    African American archaeology does not occur in a vacuum and archaeologists are becoming increasingly aware of how their research affects the public, especially descendant communities. Reactions of African American communities to archaeological investigations at the African Burial Ground in New York City highlighted the need for archaeologists to work closely with descendant communities.

    The general publics opinions about uncovering burials of enslaved colonial-era Africans, the largest and earliest collection of African and African American remains, ranged from basic distrust of white archaeologists abilities to Figure 1 African American house and yard near Charleston, South Carolina, Source: Library of Congress 13 For example, a reference to the cemetery as a potters field divorced the remains from their African origins and diminished the importance of the burials, which outraged the African American community.

    There was also an expressed belief that the bones were being mishandled and destroyed. While the overall reaction was negative, the incident highlighted the importance of African American archaeology in obtaining information about the past where documents were scarce.

    A consensus arose among archaeologists that it is crucial to work with descendant communities, keeping non-professionals informed of finds and research, consulting them concerning interpretations and especially involving the descendant communities in initial stages of research.

    African American archaeology is an exciting endeavour in historical archaeology. The relatively few sites that have been intensively investigated, however, hindered broad interpretations. African American archaeology has been labelled as data rich but theory poor. However, the strong emphasis on resistance and power has greatly expanded our understanding of the African American experience in many times and places, and is a great step forward in theory building.

    Because African diasporic communities were connected with the outside world, archaeologists need to focus attention on understanding the extent and intensity of this interaction. Furthermore, we need to spend more time investigating the internal dynamics of black American communities, recognising the diversity within these communities whether they are plantation slave quarters, maroon villages or urban house lots and neighbourhoods.

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